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What is psychology part 1

What is psychology part 1 - Chapter 1 What is Psychology...

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Chapter 1 What is Psychology?
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PSYCHOLOGY What is Psychology? Psychology is a word deriving from Greek roots: Psyche – “soul” or “mind,” Logos – “word” Psychology is the systematic study of behavior and experience
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Psychologists’ Goals Psychologists engage in the study of psychology in order to understand, explain, and predict behavior What are the major philosophical issues that are relevant to this study?
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Psychologists’ Goals General Points about Psychology “It Depends” (Few Things are True of All People all the Time) Research Progress Depends on Good Measurement Correlation Does Not Indicate Causation
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Psychologists’ Goals General Points about Psychology Variations among Individuals Reflect Both Heredity and Environment The Best Predictor of Future Behavior is Past Behavior in Similar Situations Some Statements in Psychology Reflect Stronger Evidence Than Others
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The Major Philosophical Issues Free will versus determinism – are the causes of behavior knowable, and is behavior predictable? Free will is the belief that behavior is caused by an individual’s independent decision making Determinism is the assumption that everything that happens has a cause or determinant in the observable world
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Major Philosophical Issues Which perspective holds that behavior is fully predictable?
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Which perspective holds that behavior is fully predictable? A determinist assumes everything that happens has a cause that can be known A believer in free will assumes that even with complete information regarding causes and conditions, predictions regarding human behavior can never be fully accurate
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Major Philosophical Issues The mind-brain problem: How is experience related to the organ system called the brain? Dualism is the belief that the mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and through it also the rest of the body Monism is the view that conscious experience is generated by and therefore is inseparable from the brain
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Major Philosophical Issues The mind-brain problem Data from brain imaging research such as PET (positron emission tomography) suggests that brain activity and mental activity are two aspects of the same thing Yet the question is far from resolved
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Major Philosophical Issues The nature-nurture issue How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment? Some scientists assume the larger proportion of differences in potential and behavior are due to the influence of genes
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Major Philosophical Issues The nature-nurture issue Others assume that most differences are a result of aspects of the environment such as culture, expectations, and resources This issue arises in virtually every field of psychology, and knowledge gained through research seldom provides a simple answer
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What Psychologists Do Psychology is an academic, non-medical
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