Materials - C hapter1 1.1 M aterials ciencea nd E...

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Chapter 1 1.1 Materials Science and Engineering is an interdisciplinary field concerned with inventing new materials and improving previously known materials by developing a deeper understandingof the microstructure-composition-synthesis-processing relationships. 1.2 Compostion, is the chemical make-up of a material Structure, is a description of arrangements of atoms or ions in material. Synthesis, is the process by which materials are made from naturally occurring or other chemicals. Processing means different ways of shaping materials into useful components or changing their properties. Microstructure, is the structural feature of a material such as grainboundaries, grain sizeand structure, subject to observation under a microscope. 1.3 Materials Science- emphasis on relationships between synthesis and processing, structure and properties. Materials Engineering- emphasis on transforming materials into useful devices or structures.
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Chapter 2 2.1 Chemical make-up of a material 2.2 The term structure means a description of arrangements of atoms, as seen at different levels of detail. 2.5 Microstructure is in the length scale of 10 to 1000 nm whereas macrostructure is -) 100,000 nm or 100 pm. b7 (a) Using data in Appendix A, calculate the number of iron atoms in one ton (2000 pounds). Soltttlon: (20001bX454 gflbX6.02 x 1d3 atoms/mol) =9.79 x1027 atoms/ton 55.847 glmol (b) Using data in Appendix A, calculate the volume in cubic centimeters occupied by one mole of boron. Solutlon: (l molX10.8l g/mol) =4.7 cm3 2.3 g/cm3 ln order to platea steel part having a surface area of 200 in.z with a 0.002 in. thick layer of nickel, (a) how many atoms of nickel arerequired and (b) how many moler ofnickel are required? Solutlon: Volume - (200 in.2x0.002 in.)(2.54 cm/in.)3 = 6.555 cm3 '.J (a) (6.ssj cm3xa.ft2 g/cmgxe.oz x t023 atomymol) = 5,9g x 1023 atornr 58.71 g/mol (b) (6.555 crn3x8.902 g/cm3) = 0.gg4 mol Ni required 58.71 g/mol 0.002 in , t 8 I -T-
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2-g Suppose an element has a valence of Z andan atomic number of 27. Based only on the quantum numbers, how many elertrons mustbe present in the 3d energy level? Solutlon: We can let x be the number of elecfions in the 3d energy level. Then: lsz ?sz2po3tz3p63d4s2 (must be 2 electrons in 4s for valence = 2) Since 27-(2+2+4+2+4+2) = J = a there must be 7 electrcns in the 3d level.
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