Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Work Energy Conservation and the...

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Spring 2010 Lecture 3 Work, Energy, Conservation and the First Law Professor Durham
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Spring 2010 Some of the Thermodynamic rules we will be using: To determine the performance (efficiency) of the system, we will be using: Conservation of mass Conservation of energy Losses (second law of thermodynamics) Costs (economics)
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Spring 2010 Work and Energy WORK is energy transfer into or out of a system, across the system boundary. It is not a property! Energy is an extensive property of the system Work Output
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Spring 2010 Thinking about energy Types of energy sources Non-renewable sources crude oil natural gas coal nuclear fission synthetic oil Renewable sources hydroelectric power tidal forces biomass geothermal wind solar ocean thermal gradient wave forces
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Spring 2010 Some energy considerations: Conversion: algae to biofuel, coal to heat, natural gas to electric power Are there different “levels” or “quality” of energy? Gasoline with 10% ethanol reduces the mpg about 3 – 5% below regular gasoline. How do we know if we are using the energy as effectively as possible?
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Spring 2010 Thinking about work Types of Work kinetic energy potential energy thermoelectric energy piezoelectric energy strain energy pV work Some questions: Is work always useful? How do we produce it? How do we measure it?
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Spring 2010 Generalized forces and displacement δ W = pdV σ d( A x) {to elongate a bar of metal} τ dA {to stretch a film} ε dZ {to charge electrolytic cell} E * d(V P ) {dielectric work} • – μ 0 H *d(V M ) {magnetic – i.e maglev} section 2.2.6 gives details
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