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mgt study guide - Motivation The process by which a...

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Motivation- The process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal Hierachy of needs- MAslow's theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self actualization Physiological needs- A person's needs for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical needs Safety needs- A erson's needs for security and protection from physicl and emootional harm Social needs- A person's needs for affes=ction, belongingness, acceptance and friendship esteem needs- A persons needs for internal factors, such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors, such as status, recognition, and attention self-actualization needs- A person's needs to become what he or she is capable of becoming Theory X- The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibilty, and must be coerced to perform Theory Y- The assumtion that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction Two-factor theory- Herzberg's motivation theory, which proposes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction Hygiene FActors- Factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction but do not motivate Motivators- Factors that increase Job satisfaction and motivation Three-needs-theory- McClelland's motivation theory, which says that three acquired (not innate) needs- achievement, power, and affiliation- are major motives in work Need for achievement (nAch)- The drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards Need for power (nPow)- The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have nehaved otherwise Need for affiliation- The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships goal-setting theory- The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals Self efficiency- An indivdual belief that he or she is capable of performing a task reinforcement theory- The theory that behavior is a function of its consequences
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