exam 3 - Kathy Adamczyk CHEM 203 SI: 11/8/10 Exam 3 Review...

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Kathy Adamczyk kathy89@gmail.com CHEM 203 SI: 11/8/10 http://usc.edu/si Exam 3 Review Quick Takes for Study Breaks: 1) Listen: “Grad Student Uses HIV DNA to Make Music” www.huffingtonpost.com 2) Try: If you get a 90% or higher OR if you earn at least a 10 point score increase from Exam 2 to Exam 3, email Kathy by 10pm Wed Nov. 17, and get a chance to win a chEMMY Award! HIV Facts 1. _50_ The percentage of people age 15-24 who are HIV+ (globally) 2. _25_ The percentage of people who DO NOT know they are HIV + (US) 3. _54_ The percentage of new HIV cases caused by the 25% of unaware HIV+ people HIV produces 1 in 5 mistakes 1 – 10 billion new HIV viruses produced per day We can prevent the spread of HIV through PREVENTION, TESTING, TREATMENT, & A VACCINE. 4. Which of the previous 4 methods is the only way to 100% eradicate HIV from the human population? vaccine 5. 3 guys go to a bar. Ron goes home alone. Harry leaves with a random girl but wears a condom. Draco leaves with a random girl too, but he doesn’t wear a condom. Draco is circumcised though. If this Friday night pattern continues over a year, who has the highest chance of getting HIV? _______________ % Protection from Abstinence _100___________ % Protection from Condoms __85________ % Protection from Circumcision _44___ 6. Dr. McDreamy wants to run a very thorough HIV Test for a patient. First, he tests for antibodies against HIV through a(n) _Elisa(antibodies)_ Test. Then he confirms the results with a test that checks for HIV proteins in the blood, known as a _Western Blot_ Test. 7. Dr. House is less thorough (more egotistical) and only runs 1 HIV Diagnostic Test. The _RT-PCR_ he runs is a test that checks for HIV RNA in the blood. Drug Development and Treatment is another way to prevent spreading HIV 1
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8. A scientist who studies the EFFICACY and TOXICITY of a drug studies Pharmaco_dynamics_. 9. Where/How can a drug LEAD COMPOUND be found? Natural – plants fungi Virtual – using computers to combine compounds Synthetics - lab 10.Drug modification to make DRUG ANALOGS: **Modification to make drug analog should NOT weaken the pharmacophore: the important bioactive parts of the drug Modification Example Simplification of structure Getting rid of unnecessary functional groups e.g. cocaine to procaine; maintains important binding groups Variation of substituents Changing functional groups to change chemical properties e.g. R-OH to R-COCH3 Chain extensions/contractions Removing carbons Ring expansions/contractions Pentagon to cyclohexane Ring variations Benzene to cyclohexane - Removing the double bonds Change how drug reacts with enzyme’s active site; increase effectiveness of drug 11.ISOSTERES: Replacement of one group with another that has the same number of atoms 2
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and/or lone pairs - Significant effect on drug size and/or polarity - Should have similar shapes - Count the number of bonds Once we have different possible drug compounds, we need a way to determine which
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2010 for the course CHEM 17275 taught by Professor Brutcheyjr during the Fall '08 term at USC.

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exam 3 - Kathy Adamczyk CHEM 203 SI: 11/8/10 Exam 3 Review...

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