History 121 Midterm Study Guide 1.docx - History 121...

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9/23/17 History 121 Midterm Study Guide Special Field Order 15/ Sharecropping - Distribution of plantation to former slaves. Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Radical Republicans/ Freedmen’s Bureau - Radical Republicans wanted to establish civil rights for former slaves and fully implement emancipation. (Give equality to those). The freedmen’s bureau was implemented by Abraham Lincoln, and was an important factor of early reconstruction, assisting freedmen in the south. This was an agency that helped suffering slave families after the civil war, and provided food, shoes, clothes, and temporary shelter for them. 14 th and 15 th amendments - 14 th amendment is the civil rights bill which addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed for issues regarding former slaves. 15 th amendment prohibits denying a U.S. citizen the right to vote based on color or race. Klu Klux Klan/ Jim Crowe Laws - The KKK was the military wing of the democratic party. They were a terroist group who raped, murdered and lynched black people. The Jim Crowe laws enforced racial segregation in the South. Compromise of 1877 - An unwritten deal that settled the large dispute of the 1876 presidential election, because the democrat Samuel Tilden had more votes, but the republican Rutherford Hayes still ended up winning. Congress appointed 15 men to make the decision. Dawes Severalty Act - This act authorized the president to survey the American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted this land lived separately from their tribe was granted U.S. citizenship. Wounded Knee Massacre - By the time this battle was over, more than 150 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 were wounded. The U.S. government deeply regrets this and made this a national landmark. New Immigration/ Nativism - New Immigration included Nativism (immigrant backlash) and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1822. Nativism includes immigrant backlash. It changes the nature of American cities, different languages, different foods, and by 1900 over 1000 non- English newspapers. Chinese Exclusion Act/ U.S. vs. Wong Kim Ark - The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1822 was the first immigration law to exclude an entire ethnic group from entering the U.S. Chinese immigrants victims of victims of violence and lynching. Wong Kim Ark was from San Francisco, and was denied re-entry into the United States under a law restricting immigrants from China from becoming U.S. citizens. He took this to the Supreme Court to recognize his citizenship, and they agreed on his favor to stand by the fourteenth amendment.

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