Study Guide -- Exam_2 D.Sp10

Study Guide -- Exam_2 D.Sp10 - Study Guide Exam#2 Drugs and...

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Study Guide – Exam #2: Drugs and Their Effects Spring 2010 Dr. Henderson From Class Notes, PowerPoint Slides, Text book, Films, Articles in the Reader, Song lyrics: Review: Schedule Classification of Popular Drugs (I-V) Stimulants: Stimulants in general (Chapter 4) Sensual appeal Cocaine and amphetamines are the two drugs with the greatest sensual appeal. Humans find stimulants pleasurable to take Axis of abuse Abused along the illegal instrumental axis. Socially acceptable to remain sharp, alert, awake, and energetic Abused along the illegal recreational axis to get high. Effects Euphoria and a sense of confidence and well-being Are they addictive? Stimulants are highly addictive Withdrawal Stimulant withdrawal ranges from very serious and milder symptoms depending on the stimulant “Powerfully Reinforcing” They are very powerfully reinforcing Nicotine (Chapter 12) Origin Native to south America and first isolated from tobacco plant in 1828 Effects Constricts the blood vessels causing the heart to work harder to maintain sufficient oxygen Inhibits the stomach contractions associated with hunger Intellectual and motor ability may be improved It is addicting Routes of administration Ingested via tobacco Deaths associated with smoking Tobacco causes roughly 430,000 premature deaths per year in the US Caffeine (See Article in Reader) Xanthines The class of chemicals to which caffeine belongs Effects of high doses Nervousness, irritability, tremulousness, muscle twitching, insomnia, flushed appearance, and evelvated temperature Withdrawal symptoms Headache-average 18-19 hours after withdrawal, increased fatigue and decreased sense of vigor. Symptoms are strongest during the first two days of withdrawal then decline over the next 5-6 days Coffee: Order of use worldwide Origin Showed up in Yemen in the 15 th century, spread to Mecca and Medina then to Cairo and Istanbul Tea: Origin (page 2 )
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Tea is indigenous to the region where china and India meet. First known reference around 350AD where its mentioned as a medicinal beverage Coffee v. Tea for Americans Coffee is very American the Boston tea party made drinking coffee patriotic. Tea became a symbol of british taxes and tyranny. Plus the US is very close to the Caribbean and Latin America Cacao : Origin Originated in the American tropics, it was domesticated after 1500BC Kola: Why never very popular outside of Africa? They dried out easily and required special packaging so were never shipped long distances. Coca-cola’s history Original drink mixed Cocaine and caffeine from Kola In 1903 the cocaine was removed because it was a controversial drug In 1911 the caffeine content was reduced after a lawsuit because it was sold to children US military was influential in spreading coca-cola around the world In 1955 cica-cola was an American instituition It sold in 89 different countries, in 1991 it was sold in 155 countries Sugar: Role in the wide-spread use of certain drugs.
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