JUS222_Exam1_Complete Study Guide

JUS222_Exam1_Complete Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide...

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Exam 1 Study Guide JUS200 Drug Intro Why do we take drugs? (4 reasons) 1. To heal (medicinal use, alter moods and metabolism) 2. To sustain labor 3. To transport (psychically, religious use, inspire) 4. To divert (recreation illicit drug business - $400 billion a year Total spent on illegal drugs = $63.5 billion legal (prescription) drugs=132 billion dollars The most abused prescription drugs are Percodan and Oxycontin 150,000 alcoho l-related deaths each year Order of consumption worldwide C affeine is first, A lcohol is second, N icotine is third Most commonly used legal/illegal drug(s) 1. Marijuana - most commonly used illegal drug. 2. cocaine 3. heroin 3. Methamphetamine Drug Use and the Body INSTRUMENTAL USE A person is taking a drug with a specific socially-approved goal in mind. RECREATIONAL USE A person is taking the drug for the sole purpose of experiencing its psychoactive properties (e.g., to get “high”). Classic Addiction- based on withdrawal symptoms (model based on opiates) Chills, Fever, Gooseflesh, Diarrhea, Muscular twitching, Spasms, Nausea, Vomiting, Cramps, general bodily aches and pains, especially in the bones and the joints, Alcohol, sedatives (such as barbiturates), tranquilizers “Physical addiction” 1. Preoccupation- Addict assigns high priority to acquiring drugs 2. Compulsion- Addict continues to use drugs despite consequences 3. Relapse - Addict returns to normal abuse after attempts to quit. Psychological dependency/reinforcing Drug Dependence : a state of psychic dependence or physical dependence , or both, arising in a person following administration of that drug on a periodic or continued basis. Psychological reinforcing : drugs like cocaine, do not cause typical withdrawal symptoms, but users become highly dependent especially when the drug’s effects are highly pleasurable “Psychic dependence” – there is a feeling of satisfaction and psychic drive that require periodic or continuous administration of the drug to produce pleasure or avoid discomfort.( is a form of addiction) Causes of continued use The mechanism of physical dependence causes continued use through the avoidance of withdrawal ; The mechanism of psychological dependence causes continued use through the motive to seek pleasure . Potential for causing psychological dependence The more “reinforcing” ( pleasurable) the drug is- the higher its potential for physcological dependence Non-compulsive drug users Recreational users- weekends, no withdrawls, doesn’t require a lot The drugs of abuse Depressants Alcohol Narcotics (Opiates: heroine, morphine, codeine, painkillers) Sedatives, Tranquilizers, Anti-depressant and Anti-anxiety drugs Inhalants (glue, paint thinner, hair spray) Stimulants ( caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, meth) Hallucinogens (L.S.D., P.C.P, MDMA, Mushrooms, Peyote) Marijuana
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Steroids Most commonly abused prescription drugs Pharmacology : study of drug effects, how substances affect living tissue.
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