ND practice final - STUDENT NAME_STUDENT NUMBER Faculty of...

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STUDENT NAME:___________________________STUDENT NUMBER:_________ ____ Faculty of Science FINAL EXAMINATION ATMOSPHERIC & OCEANIC SCIENCES ATOC 185 EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES EPSC 185 NATURAL DISASTERS Examiners: Professor J. Gyakum and Professor J. Stix Wednesday, 16 December 2009, 9:00 AM-12:00 PM Instructions: Answer your choice of any 25 questions. Each question is worth 4 points. If you answer more than 25 questions, only the first 25 questions will be marked. All answers should be short-answer, from several words to several sentences. Provide all answers on the test sheet itself. No notes, texts, or calculators are permitted. Translation dictionaries are permitted. Please place your name and student number on each page of this exam. Good luck and happy holidays. This exam comprises 10 pages, including the cover page.
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Final Exam, Natural Disasters ATOC/EPSC 185, 16 December 2009, Page 2 of 10 Name:________________________________Student number:_____________________________ 1. Provide one reason to explain why tornadoes account for a larger number of fatalities, on average, than hurricanes. Take one: There is a relatively short warning time, on the order of minutes, or as much as an hour. The damage tends to be catastrophic. Tornadoes can have wind speeds greater than those of even the strongest of hurricanes. 2. Provide two reasons why people tend to ignore tornado warmings. Take two: Many victims live in mobile homes, and do not have access to safe evacuation shelters People tend to ignore warnings that fall outside of the ‘normal’ tornado season. In fact, tornadoes may occur during any month of the year. Optimism bias: “bad things only happen to other people” Warnings may be ignored, because there may be no evacuation plan, or because people do not think there is a significant threat. 3. During the past 60 years, has the number of reported tornadoes in North America been increasing, decreasing, or remaining the same? Provide a plausible explanation for your answer. Increasing. Take one: People are now more knowledgeable about spotting or detecting more tornadoes. Population encroachment into areas not previously inhabited. The number of tornadoes has actually increased. 4. Where in the world are the most tornadoes reported? Provide at least two plausible reasons for your answer.
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Final Exam, Natural Disasters ATOC/EPSC 185, 16 December 2009, Page 3 of 10 Name:________________________________Student number:_____________________________ North America Take two: Warm, moist air source Cold air source All significant mountain ranges are oriented north-south 5. Distinguish between a tornado watch and a tornado warning by defining each term. Tornado watch: Indicates that conditions are favorable for tornadoes to form. The watch may be given as much as 12 hours in advance of the potential event. Tornado warning: This means that a tornado is believed to be present in the warning area.
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