Discourse & Society 2005 Mallinson

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http://das.sagepub.com/ Discourse & Society http://das.sagepub.com/content/16/6/787 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.1177/0957926505056664 2005 16: 787 Discourse Society Christine Mallinson and Zachary W. Brewster discourse 'Blacks and bubbas': Stereotypes, ideology, and categorization processes in restaurant servers' Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com can be found at: Discourse & Society Additional services and information for http://das.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts: http://das.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: http://das.sagepub.com/content/16/6/787.refs.html Citations: at UNIV WASHINGTON LIBRARIES on September 19, 2010 das.sagepub.com Downloaded from
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‘Blacks and bubbas’: Stereotypes, ideology, and categorization processes in restaurant servers’ discourse A RT I C L E 787 Discourse & Society Copyright © 2005 SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi) www.sagepublications.com Vol 16(6): 787–807 10.1177/ 0957926505056664 C H R I S T I N E M A L L I N S O N A N D Z A C H A RY W. B R E W S T E R N O RT H C A RO L I NA S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y A B S T R A C T . Individuals employ general, cognitively grounded categorization processes to form expectations for interactions with members of other social groups. Such categorizations sometimes surface in the form of racial, ethnic, or other stereotypes. But although much literature describes and/or tests the cognitive nature of stereotyping and categorization, less investigates how stereotypes and categories are formed in casual interaction, through casual discourse. This article analyzes data from 15 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with restaurant servers to investigate how they categorize customers by drawing on racial stereotypes and stereotypes related to class and/or cultural capital to produce two types of discriminatory discourse: ‘racetalk’ and what we term ‘regiontalk’. Our analyses suggest potential differences in the servers’ processes of categorization according to patron type, which we interpret with regard to the larger context of racism and classism in contemporary U.S. society. K E Y W O R D S : critical discourse analysis, dialect prejudice, discourse, discourse analysis, discrimination, prejudice, racetalk, racism, racist discourse, redneck Introduction As has been well established, individuals categorize others based on attributes such as race, class, gender and sexual orientation, and employ these categoriza- tions to form expectations for social interactions with members of other groups (Foschi et al., 1994; Ridgeway, 1997; Waldinger and Lichter, 2003). According to Ridgeway (1997), these categorizations are cognitively grounded and there- fore often operate in subconscious or conscious ways. As such, they typically surface as stereotypes that people develop as they interact with a member of an out-group and use that individual’s actions as a basis for generalizations about an entire group to which that other belongs (Kirschenman and Neckerman, 1991). As stereotypes are reproduced and become shared local knowledge, they
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