Journal of sociolinguistics 2003 Lindemann

Journal of sociolinguistics 2003 Lindemann - Journal of...

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# Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2003 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden MA 02148, USA. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7/3, 2003: 348±364 RESEARCH NOTES Koreans, Chinese or Indians? Attitudes and ideologies about non-native English speakers in the United States 1 Stephanie Lindemann Georgia State University, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Beginning with the ground-breaking work of Lambert and his colleagues (Lambert 1967; Lambert, Hodgson, Gardner and Fillenbaum 1960), a number of matched guise and verbal guise studies on language attitudes have shown that people typically prefer dialects or languages spoken by historically powerful groups, especially on the grounds of status-related qual- ities (Berk-Seligson 1984; Lambert et al. 1960) and suitability for higher-status jobs (Seggie, Smith and Hodgins 1986). Non-native speakers are often eval- uated negatively on measures of solidarity as well as status, as Ryan and her colleagues have found for U.S. native English speakers' perception of Spanish- accented (Ryan, Carranza and Mo²e 1977; Ryan and Sebastian 1980) and German-accented English (Ryan and Bulik 1982). Other non-native speakers that U.S. listeners have rated negatively (at least under some study conditions) include Malaysians (Gill 1994), Chinese (Cargile 1997), and Italians, Norwe- gians, and Eastern Europeans (Mulac, Hanley and Prigge 1974). Not all non-native speakers are necessarily stigmatized, however. In a more recent study by Cargile and Giles (1998), university students in southern California rated a Japanese speaker with a `moderate accent' in English as highly on status traits (but not on attractiveness traits) as others rated the same speaker in a `Standard American' guise. Japanese speakers thus appear to have relatively high prestige, at least for the students participating in Cargile and Giles's (1998) study. As those authors point out, a speaker's non-native status is not the only relevant issue for evaluation of prestige; perceptions of the
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ATTITUDES AND IDEOLOGIES: NON-NATIVE ENGLISH 349 # Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2003 speaker's particular group are also relevant. This is not to say that non- nativeness becomes irrelevant, as they also found that a speaker with a `heavy' Japanese accent was rated more negatively on status traits. In spite of the numerous studies investigating reactions to di±erent language varieties, there remains considerable di²culty in interpreting these studies within a uni®ed framework, as Giles and Coupland (1991) have pointed out. In considering non-native varieties, even such typically helpful distinctions as stigmatized-non-stigmatized may be di²cult to identify, since it is not always clear whether non-native accents call to listeners' minds an immigrant population (perhaps viewed more negatively) or an originating country (perhaps viewed more positively). Other problems in interpretation arise due to di±erences in the respondent groups in various studies, as relationships to various non-native groups di±er from place to place and change over time.
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Journal of sociolinguistics 2003 Lindemann - Journal of...

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