Reconstruction to Nixon

Reconstruction to Nixon - History 2057 Notes RECONSTRUCTION...

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History 2057 Notes RECONSTRUCTION I) Reconstruction As A National Issue a) End of Civil War 1877 b) Relief for South i) South was destroyed, became a very important issue to rebuild the South c) Political Reconstruction i) creating a new government free from Southern political leaders of the civil war ii) status of former slaves racially inferior, will they have civil rights and if so what would they be? Voting, property, etc? iii) Congress felt the defeated Southern states should remain out of the Union until they met predetermined conditions set by them, Lincoln felt they should be allowed back in. d) Constitutional Interference How much should the national government interfere with state laws? II) Presidential Reconstruction Under Lincoln a) Plan to get reconstruction over with quickly to get war behind ASAP and move on to rebuild the country b) Reasons for moderation: i) personal responsibility no one expected war to last as long as it did, many causalities, Lincoln was antislavery but was not committed to slaves’ civil rights. ii) political party consideration Lincoln was a member of the Wig Party and was hoping that former Wigs in the South would become Republicans rather than Democrats iii) values and attitudes Lincoln developed while being raised born in Kentucky which was a slave state, raised in Southern Illinois which was a Jim Crow society with racist laws & a segregated society c) Blueprint i) Emancipation Proclamation applied solely in the South ii) each slave state to gradually work out emancipation on their own could only last until 1900 iii) supported idea of black leaving the country iv) by the time of his death believed that 4 states (VA, AR, LA, & TN) to be reconstructed d) Radical Reaction (Wade – Davis Bill) i) no state reconstructed after the war ii) needed 15% instead of 10% of voters to take oath of allegiance
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iii) radicals mistakenly believed that Johnson agreed with their policies since he made speeches leading them to believe so III) Reconstruction Under Johnson a) Attitude i) hated rich Southerns ii) believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution, not elastic iii) social bias b) Plan i) Lincoln had only had a small group of people ineligible for party participation but Johnson added those with $20,000 worth of taxable property to that list ii) fight between Johnson and Congress began 1 month after he took office IV) Radical Counter-Offensive a) Freedman’s Bureau i) helped freed slaves find jobs and opened schools b) March 1867 – Congress passed series of laws i) no legal government in the South ii) tried to protect Secretary of War but Johnson fired him V) Impeachment a) Early 1868 – Johnson impeached by Congress but not convicted b) affected Reconstruction policy in the South VI) Election of 1868 a) Radicals in control b) Amendments added i) 13 th frees slaves ii) 14 th makes slaves legal citizens iii) 15 th gave slaves the right to vote
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Reconstruction to Nixon - History 2057 Notes RECONSTRUCTION...

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