exam3-3 - Exam 2 Study Guide Modules 21-30 Module31: ?...

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Exam 2 Study Guide: Modules 21-30 Module 31: Introduction to Intelligence What is the definition of intelligence? Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience,  solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations; intelligence is a socially constructed  concept that differs from culture to culture. The two big controversies in current research on intelligence  are (1) whether it is one overall ability or many, and (2) whether neuroscientists can locate and  measure intelligence within the brain. To  reify  intelligence is to treat it as though it were a real object,  not an abstract concept. Most psychologists now define intelligence as the ability to learn from  experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations. Explain reification: When we think of intelligence as a trait (thing) we commit to an error called  reification — viewing an abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing; we should think  intelligence is a concept, not a trait or a thing. What is Spearman’s g (or gF) – what does this imply about intelligence ? General intelligence is a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence task. Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g), is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. For example, people who do well on vocabulary do well on paragraph comprehension, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include spatial ability factor a reasoning ability factor. o How does Spearman’s view of g differ from how Thurstone & Gardner thought about intelligence? L. L. Thurstone, a critic of Spearman, analyzed his subjects NOT on a single scale of general intelligence, but on seven clusters of primary mental abilities  including:   word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning and memory. Later psychologists analyzed Thurstone’s data and found a weak relationship between these clusters, suggesting some evidence of a factor. What is convergent thinking? Give an example of a test that assesses this- IQ, one right answer Convergent thinking-having a single correct answer, tested by intelligence test, the type required for intelligence test solutions, doing well in school What is divergent thinking? Give an example of a test that assesses this-assess creativity Divergent thinking-having not one right answer to a problem, but imagining multiple possible answers, such as words beginning with the letter “s”, the type required for multiple imaginative solutions Module 32: Assessing Intelligence Intelligence test: a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes (abilities) and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
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  • Spring '08
  • freeman
  • Mass Communication, Intelligence quotient, General intelligence factor

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