wk10_Mod_36-37_LTR - Module36 1 Motivation Psychology...

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1 Introduction to Motivation Module 36
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2 Motivation Introduction to Motivation Instincts and Evolutionary  Psychology Drives and Incentives Optimum Arousal A Hierarchy of Motivations
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3 Motivation Motivation   is a need or  desire that serves to  energize behavior and to  direct it toward a goal Alan Ralston was  motivated to cut his arm  to free himself from a  rock that pinned him  down. Alan Ralston AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren
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4 Perspectives on Motivation Four perspectives to explain motivation include:  1. Instinct Theory. 2. Drive-Reduction Theory. 3. Arousal Theory. 4. Hierarchy of Motives.
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5 Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology Instincts are  complex behaviors that have fixed  patterns throughout species and are unlearned  (Tinbergen, 1951).  Where the woman can build different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. © Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.
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6 Drive-Reduction Theory When the instinct theory of motivation failed it was  replaced by drive-reduction theory. Physiological  need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that  motivates an organism to satisfy the need (Hull,  1951).
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7 Drive Reduction Food Drive Reduction Organism Physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis –  maintenance of steady internal state, e.g., maintenance  of steady body temperature. Stomach Full Empty Stomach (Food Deprived)
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8 Incentive Where our needs  push,   incentives  (positive or negative  stimuli)  pull  us in reducing our drives. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels strong hunger drive.
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9 Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but  to seek optimum levels of arousal. Young monkeys 
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