4573836e793e2d8e2d4fe4aba5446305-2 - Module 46 Study Guide...

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Module 46 Study Guide How did the trait theorists describe personality? An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitute his personality o How are traits assessed through factor analysis – Factor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits o Personality inventory – Are questionanaires (often with true-false or afree- desagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behavior assessing several traits at once. What are the Big Five? Most people believe Cattell’s 16PF inventory is too large and Eysenck’s is too small so a middle ground of 5 was established. They are conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion. What controversy is the major criticism of trait theory? The Peron-Situation Controversy – traits bay be enduring but the resulting behavior in different situations is different. Thus traits are not good predictors of behaviors. What is the social-cognitive view of personality? Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social context o Reciprocal determinism – the three factors, behavior, cognition and environment are interlocking determinants of each other. Ex. Bungee-jumping – Cognitive factors (thoughts and feelings about risky behavior), environmental factors (bungee-jumping friends), behavior (learning to bungee jump) What are 3 ways that individuals interact with their environments? 1. Different people choose different environments (school you attend, music you listen to, shows you watch) 2. Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events (anxious people view the world as threatening and react accordingly) 3. Our personalities help create situations to which we react (How we view and treat people influences how they in turn treat us.) o Know these terms: personal control (external and internal loci), learned helplessness, optimism and pessimism Personal Control – whether we control the environment or the environment controls us. External locus of control – refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate Internal locus of control - refers to the perception that we can control our own fate Learned helplessness – when unable to avoid repeated aversive events an animal or human learns hopelessness. Uncontrollable bad events leads to a perceived lack of control which is followed by generalized helpless behavior Optimism – general disposition to expect the best in all things Pessimism – general disposition to look on the dark side and to expect the worst in all things What is the driving force behind the social-cognitive view of personality? The environment and cognition
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Major criticism of the social-cognitive theory of personality? Social cognitive psychologists pay a lot of attention to the situation and less attention to the
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