Chapter 9A (Intelligence) Thursday January 7 2010

Chapter 9A (Intelligence) Thursday January 7 2010 - Psych...

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Psych 1000: Introduction to Psychology Problem Solving and Intelligence Thursday, January 7 th 2010 Reasoning and Problem Solving Deductive Reasoning : -aka top down reasoning -from general principles to a conclusions about a specific case -if x, then y -example: if all birds lay egg; if I penguin is a bird; then a penguin lays eggs -the type of logic used in formal mathematics and logic -if x is correct, y must also be correct Inductive Reasoning : -aka bottom up reasoning -from specific facts to a general principles -laws and theories are developed in this manner -example: Freud’s theories -less certainty about conclusions -theories still need to be tested to see if they apply in specific cases Effective Problem Solving : Steps: 1) understand or frame the problem 2) generate potential solutions (brainstorming) 3) test the solutions 4) evaluate the results 1. Problems of Arrangement : -Example: Anagrams -Using the letters in the following phrase list as many different words as you can think of: Psychology Class -school, call, loss, cool, glass, gas, splay, laps, etc. 2. Problems of Inducing Structure -without lifting your pencil from the paper, draw no more than 4 lines that will cross through all nine dots (example from class; there are two potential solutions) -the matchstick problem: move 2 matches to form 4 equal squares 3. Problems of Transformation -Three jugs (with 3, 21 and 127 ounces capacity) the large jug is full & you want exactly 100 ounces in the large jug (empty 3 jug twice and 21 jug once)
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-Barriers to Effective Problem Solving: -ill defined problems -irrelevant information -functional fixedness -unnecessary constraints -mental set Problem Solving Schema: mental blueprints (step by step procedures) for problem solving Approaches to Problem Solving : Algorithms : -simplest strategy -systematic trial and error -guaranteed solution Heuristic s: -general problem solving strategies that we apply to certain types of problems -no guaranteed solution -forming sub goals -working backward -searching for analogies -changing the representation of a problem Cognitive Styles and Problem Solving Field Dependence : relying on external frames of reference; focus on the total
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Chapter 9A (Intelligence) Thursday January 7 2010 - Psych...

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