Chapter 9B (Intelligence) Thursday January 14 2010

Chapter 9B (Intelligence) Thursday January 14 2010 - Psych...

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Psych 1000: Introduction to Psychology Factors impacting Intelligence Wednesday, January 13, 2010 Sample Exam Question Q. The ability to acquire previously acquired information to a current problem is referred to as: A) Creativity B) Fluid intelligence C) Crystallized intelligence D) Emotional intelligence E) None Q. The theorist that proposed that intelligence is best described as a unitary factor referred to as “g”: A) Spearman B) Thurstone C) Cattel D) Guilford E) Gardner Assessing Intelligence Assumptions : -intelligence is a valued capacity -there are individual differences in intelligence -intelligence can be defined and measured -intelligence can predict “real life” successes and failures Historical Perspective Sir Francis Galton (late 1800s) -intelligence is “inherited mental constitutions” -first cousin of Charles Darwin -he found that individuals were very similar to their parents in terms of intelligence and used this as support for his theory (however this ignores that fact that parents and offspring live in the same environment) -evolutionary perspective -measured head circumference (inaccurate) and perceptual speed (somewhat relevant) in order to assess intelligence Alfred Binet (early 1900s) -established “typical” mental functioning of children for a given age -hired by the French government to identify children who were below average so special programs could be developed -coined the term “mental age” = highest level of functioning for a child
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William Stern (early 1900s) -worked with Binet in order to develop “Intelligence Quotients” (IQs) -I.Q. = mental age / chronological age -limitations: problems measuring intelligence in adults (i.e. development plateaus at a certain point 40 years olds do not know twice as much as 20 year olds) Measuring Intelligence Stanford-Binet (IQ) : reflect individual’s performance relative to peers on mostly verbal items Wechlser Scales (WAIS-R; Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale, WISC; Wechlser Intelligence Scale for Children) -measures verbal (left hemisphere) and performance (right hemisphere) intelligence Cultural Bias in Intelligence Test : -culture fair tests: Raven Progressive Matrices Tests: look at amore fluid intelligence, abstract problem solving and do not require a good grasp of the language or culture
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