Chapter 10 - (Motivation) - Thursday January 21 2010

Chapter 10 - (Motivation) - Thursday January 21 2010 -...

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Psych 1000: Introduction to Psychology Chapter 10 (cont’d) - Motivation Thursday, January 21, 2010 Sample Exam Questions Q. If you designed a test to assess verbal intelligence using only visual spatial skills and repeatedly found that the test produced the same results time after time the test would be considered to have A) Good reliability B) Good construct validity C) Poor content validity D) A and B E) A and C Q. According to research intelligence tests have the best predicitive validity for A) Secondary school grades B) University Grades C) College Grades D) Job Performance E) All equally Motivation: - a process that influences the direction persistence and vigor of self- directed behaviour Drive Theory (and homeostasis) : -homeostasis: the body strives to maintain an internal physical equilibrium Behaviours that Reduce Drive are Strengthened | Biological Need > Drive State > Activation of Many Different Behaviour Expectancy theory (and Incentives) -a “pull” of external stimuli that have a high value to the individual -“intrinsic” (rewarding in itself) vs. “extrinsic” (external reward) motivation -increasing the external reward for a behaviour make the behaviour less intrinsically rewarding (i.e. less rewarding for its own sake) Behavioural Theories : Operant Conditioning : maximize positive consequences; minimize negative consequences Human Drives : Biological Drives : (survival related) -hunger -thirst
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-sexual drives Unconscious Drives : -Freudian Theory Self-Actualizing Drives : -Humanistic & Existentialist Theories -Need for Achievement Social Drives -Need for Affiliation Emotions as a Motivating Force The Regulation of Hunger and Eating : Brain Regulation -surgically removing the ventromedial hypothalamus causes the animal to eat continuously - Initial Theory : lateral hypothalamus “hunger on” and ventromedial hypothalamus “hunger off” - Now : we know that the paraventricular nucleus is more important Hormonal Regulation : -Insulin (high levels stimulate hunger) -Leptin (high levels inhibit hunger) - Glucostatic Theory : fluctuations in blood glucose levels are monitored in the brain by glucostats (specialized neurons); very complicated feedback loop Other Influences on Hunger Learned Preferences & Habits : -exposure & observational learning (i.e. in North America we learn to eat 3 meals a day) -food paired with comfort (classical conditioning) -when and what we eat is a leaned behaviour (i.e. in North America we eat beef while in India and Greece they do not) Food-related Cues : -appearance, odor, effort required
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