Chapter 11B - (Development) - Thursday February 4 2010

Chapter 11B - (Development) - Thursday February 4 2010 -...

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Psych 1000: Introduction to Psychology Chapter 11 - Development (cont’d) Thursday, February 04, 2010 Sample Exam Questions : Q. During what stage of pregnancy are teratogens most harmful? A) 1 st trimester B) 2 nd trimester C) 3 rd trimester D) equally harmful during all stages Q. By two years of age most children: A) are telegraphic speakers B) speak in 4 word utterances C) have experienced their vocabulary spurt D) A and C E) all of the above Integrated Model of Development -Holistic -Biopsychosocial Biological Contribution : genetics set limits for development (i.e. reaction range) Environmental Contribution : experience determines where within a reaction range an individual will fall Critical Periods : a period of time where a certain experience must occur to proceed normally Developmental Theories : Continuous vs. Stage-Like Theories -most people today would say that it is continuous however many of the most popular theories are stage theories (abrupt changes in development, distinct steps, typically proceed through steps in order) Cognitive Development : Piaget -psychologist in France in the early 1900s -asked by the French government to do tests on children who were struggling in school -became interested in development - Adaptation : building mental representations of the world through direct interaction with it - Assimilation : fit new information into existing framework - Accommodation : change existing framework to fit new info
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4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1) Sensorimotor Period : 0-2 years of age; “object permanence” develops (realizing that even when objects are out of sight they still exist) 2) Preoperational Period : 2-7 years of age; irreversibility, egocentrism (focused on the world from own perspective) 3) Concrete Operational : 7-11 years, master the concept of conservation and hierarchical classification 4) Formal Operation Stage : 11+ years of age; becoming more hypothetical and abstract in thinking Conservation : changing the shape of something (i.e. pouring water into different shaped containers and realizing it is still the same amount of water) does not change it’s volume or mass Revisions to Piaget s Theory : -Piaget claimed the stages were “universal”: usually across cultures these stages are present, but it also depends on the task, experience, language, and familiarity with objects involved -contrary to Piaget’s theory culture also effects development -possible 5 th stage of cognitive development: Post Formal Thinking : being able to see the Gestalt; all aspects of a situation simultaneously; not everyone reaches this stage but it is possible -Piaget proposed object permanence does not emerge before 8 months: object permanence really emerges before 8 months with age-appropriate tasks -Piaget proposed children are very egocentric: research on theory of mind: suggest children are not as egocentric as Piaget proposed -Piaget proposed distinct stages of development: development is more continuous and happens earlier, development within each stage is more inconsistent than Piaget proposed (i.e. may develop conservation for solids but
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