Chapter 12 - (Personality) - Thursday March 4 2010

Chapter 12 - (Personality) - Thursday March 4 2010 -...

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Psychology 1000 Sec 003 Chapter 12: Personality March 4, 2010 Outline Personality Theory and Research 1. Biological/trait theories 2. Learning theories a. Bandura (social cognitive) b. Rotter (social learning) 3. Psychodynamic theory a. Freud b. Melanie Kline c. Jung 4. Humanistic theories a. Rogers (self theory) b. Maslow (theory of self-actualization) Personality Assessment -self-report measures -projective tests -interviews Practice Exam Questions The most durable type of persuasion occurs through the use of:
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-the central route to persuasion _________ occurs when group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant initial viewpoint to be even more extreme. -group polarization What is Personality? -list 5 adjectives that describe you well -personality trait-a durable disposition to behave in a certain way across situations -consistency (across situations) -distinctiveness (individual differences) -a good personality theory -explains consistency across situations (but also differences) -explains individual differences -is consistent with research findings -stimulates subsequent research Theories of Personality -five factor trait model of personality (McCrae & Costa, 1985) -agreeableness, conscientiousness (constraint), openness to experience, extraversion (positive emotionality), neuroticism (negative emotionality) OCEAN -derived using factor analysis -similar cross-culturally -biological theories of personality development
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-genetic contribution to personality (twin studies) -estimate that personality traits are ~50% heritable -Cattell’s 16 factors of personality -tries to describe personality using a set of fixed traits -Higher-Order Trait Theory (Hans Eysenck): 2 traits on a continuum 1.stable vs. unstable-similar to Big 5’s neuroticism 2.introversted vs. extroverted -individuals can be one of 4 different types (due to the 4 different combinations) 3.later added a third dimension of psychoticism -personality and the nervous system-suggested biological basis for personality -deviations from optimal level of arousal -introverted-chronic over-arousal -extroverted-chronic under-arousal -suddenness of shifts in arousal -neurotic (emotionally unstable)-sudden shifts -emotionally stable-gradual shifts in arousal -other personality dimensions -Type A vs. Type B behavior -Type A=agreeable, ambitious, cautious, competitive, honest, hostile, striving -Type B=calm, easy going, less success driven -Type A related to heart disease, due to hostility -orientation -optimism-view themselves, their lives, their future, and others in a positive hopeful manner-linked to positive health outcomes and emotional stability-
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optimistic people are typically not neurotic -pessimism-view themselves, their lives, their future, and others in a negative manner -evaluation of biological/trait theories -strengths -convincing evidence for genetic influence -integrates personality with biological factors -cross-cultural similarities -limitations -difficulties explaining inconsistencies in behaviour -ignores environmental factors (nurture)
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