Chapter 16A (Social Psychology) - February 11 2010

Chapter 16A (Social Psychology) - February 11 2010 -...

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Psychology 1000 Sec 003 Chapter 16: Social Psychology February 11, 2010 Outline Attribution: -perceiving causes of behavior -forming and maintaining impressions Intergroup relations: -stereotypes Prejudice: -discrimination Attitude change Aggression Altruism Attraction Practice Exam Questions Which of the following cognitive abilities increases throughout adulthood? -crystallized intelligence _____ refers to a child’s tendency to prefer same sex activities to those over the opposite sex. -sex-typed behavior
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Social Psychology -scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations (i.e., in the presence (actual or implied) of others Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior -judgments about the causes of our own behavior and other people’s behaviors and outcomes - personal (internal) attributions -caused by their traits or characteristics -situational (external) attributions -caused by other factors (e.g., situation) -fundamental attribution error -in judging the cause of other’s behavior, we underestimate the importance of situational factors, and overestimate the importance of internal factors -self-serving bias -when judging the cause of our own behavior, we overestimate the importance of situational factors in failures, and we overestimate the importance of internal factors in successes -people who are depressed lack the self-serving bias; they actually tend to have the opposite -forming and maintaining impressions -are first impressions most important? -primacy effects-our tendency to attach more importance to the first information that we learn about a person -Asch study (1946)-reverse order of adjectives
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-introduced participants to “John” describing him using positive and negative traits/half presented with positive traits first, half presented with negative traits first/participants described John as being more positive or negative according to the valence of traits that were listed first in the description of him -first impressions important in developing the initial schema. The schema then acts as a filter for incoming information Intergroup Relations -stereotypes and expectations: often negative, not necessarily adequate or accurate - attitudes have three main components: affect (feelings), cognition (thoughts, beliefs), behavior (actions you would take) -affect (prejudice), cognition (stereotype), behavior (discrimination) -origin of stereotypes -cognitive miser theory-idea that we have limited cognitive resources so any device that releases cognitive resources will be used often
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