Chapter%2013B%20%28Disorders%29%20%26%2014A%20%28Treatment%29%20-%20Thursday%20March%2018%20%202010

Chapter%2013B%20%28Disorders%29%20%26%2014A%20%28Treatment%29%20-%20Thursday%20March%2018%20%202010

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Psychology 1000 Sec 003 Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders March 18, 2010 Outline Psychological Disorders -anxiety disorders --phobias --panic disorder --obsessive compulsive disorder --post-traumatic stress disorder -somatoform disorder --conversion disorder and hypochondriasis -dissociative disorders -personality disorders Sample Exam Question 1. With schizophrenia, which of the following is not a “negative” symptom? -delusions 2. According to the DSM-IV, a diagnosis of diabetes belongs on which axis? -Axis III
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder -prevalence: 2-3% -involves recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are serious enough to adversely  affect a person’s life -hand washing is a common compulsion -obsessions: persistent, intrusive, and anxiety-evoking ideas, thoughts, impulses, or  images --they are ego-dystonic: the person doesn’t consider these thoughts to be self-produced,  they are inconsistent with how the person sees themselves -compulsions: repetitive behaviours or mental acts to prevent or reduce anxiety or  distress, e.g., hoarding compulsion -most common -obsessions and -compulsions -contamination fears of germs -washing -imagining harming self or others -repeating -imagining losing control of aggressive urges -checking -intrusive sexual thoughts or urges -excessive religious or moral doubt -counting  -forbidden thoughts -ordering/arranging  -need to have things just so -hoarding/saving  -a need to tell, ask, confess -praying - causes? -biological factors
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-genetics (anxiety in general) -higher than normal activity in frontal lobe (involved in impulse control) -low serotonin (related to aggressive behaviour and thoughts) -smaller caudate nucleus (so difficulty suppressing incoming impulses) -psychodynamic theory -sexual and aggressive impulses -from unconscious break through into conscious awareness and cause  anxiety -Freud’s therapy ineffective often makes anxiety worse -learning theory -learned an inappropriate and now vicious reinforcement cycle that is  difficult to break -especially compulsions maintained via negative reinforcement Generalized Anxiety Disorder -prevalence: males=4%, females=7% -excessive worry and anxiety dominates patient’s life “free floating anxiety” -tense, on edge, irritable, sleep difficulties, exhausted, difficulty concentrating and  making decisions -causes? -biological -genetic vulnerability
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-insufficient GABA or GABA receptors? (GABA tempers sympathetic  arousal) -cognitive -selectively focus on threats -overestimate threat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder -prevalence: 1-2% (slightly misleading, need to experience a traumatic event;  prevalence among war vets is 30%) -following exposure to severe trauma and is characterized by -re-experiencing the event through intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares, 
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Chapter%2013B%20%28Disorders%29%20%26%2014A%20%28Treatment%29%20-%20Thursday%20March%2018%20%202010

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