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Lecture #2 - Lecture#2 Science Peer-reviewed-maintain...

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September 17, 2009 Lecture #2 Science Peer-reviewed -maintain rigorous standards for honesty and accuracy Reproduce results demanded Failures are searched for and studied closely Over time, more is learned about processes under study Convinces by evidence or logical reasoning Pseudoscience Not peer reviewed No rigorous standards for honesty and accuracy Results cannot be reproduced or verified Failures are ignored, excused, or hidden Over time, nothing new is learned Convinces by faith or belief Theories: -frameworks for explaining events -formal statements that explain how and why certain events are related -theories are broader than hypothesis Hypothesis - tentative explanation/prediction Variable: -the factor you want to explore -Operational definition -how you are specifically going to define your variable -aggression – # of punches? # of verbal threats? A Good Theory -incorporates existing facts/observations within a single framework -are testable -supported by new research findings -are parsimonious Theories are not necessarily true . Steps in Scientific research -initial observation/question -form hypothesis -test hypothesis -conduct research -analyze data -do results support the hypothesis? -Do further research and build a theory -adjust theory on the basis of new findings Who? The Sample Sample-
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