Exam 1 notes (chapter1,2,5) - Psychodynamic Perspectives F...

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Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces. Freud often treated people troubled by nervous problems such as irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties. Psychoanalysis – length verbal interactions in which Freud probed deeply into patients’ lives. Most of Freud’s contemporaries were uncomfortable with his work, for 3 reasons. 1. Unconscious forces govern human behavior – suggesting people are not masters of their own minds 2. Childhood experiences strongly determine adult personality. Suggested people are not masters of their own destinies. 3. Individual’s personalities are shaped by how they cope with their sexual urges – this assertion offended the conservative, Victorian values of his time. Freud divided personality structure into 3 components: the Id, the Ego, and the Superego - Id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle : it houses the raw biological urges (eat, sleep, defecate, and copulate, and so on) which energize human behavior. It operates upon pleasure principle , which demands immediate gratification of its urges. Id engages in primary process thinking (primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented). - Ego is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle : considers social realities – society’s norms, etiquette, rules, and customs – in deciding how to behave. It is guided by the reality principle , which seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found. Ego engages in secondary process thinking (relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving). - Superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong: people internalize many of these social norms, meaning they truly accept certain moral principle, then they put pressure on themselves to live up to these standards. The conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time. The preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved. The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness, but that nonetheless exert great influence on one’s behavior. Conflict and Defense Mechanisms Freud assumed that behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal conflicts. Battles among the id, ego, and superego are routine. (The id wants to gratify its urges immediately,
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but the norms of civilized society frequently dictate otherwise). Freud believed that conflicts dominate people’s lives. In addition, he believed that conflicts centering on sexual and aggressive impulses are especially likely to have far reaching consequences.
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