lecture 11 - Kondratiev Cycles Tendency for major...

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Kondratiev Cycles - Tendency for major innovations to cluster together in distinct cycles or waves - Named after Soviet economist - Cycles last (approx.) 50 -60 years; each one associated with distinct technologies - 5 cycles distinguished since late 18 th century (note: each cycle consists of 2 distinct phases-one growth, the other stagnation); o Early Mechanization – late 18 th century o Steam power/railway – mid 19 th century o Electrical/heave engineering- early 20 th century o Fordist mass engineering- early 20 th century o Information/communication – early 21 st century Summary - Economic geography: “The study of how people earn their living, how livelihood systems vary by area, and how economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked” - Categories of economic systems: primary-secondary-tertiary-quaternary - Types of economic systems: subsistence-commercial-planned - Geographic expressions of economic activity: heartland-hinterland (core-periphery) - Economic development is “highly uneven” – what does this mean? Why is economic
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