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More coursework: 1 - A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I - J | K - L | M | N - O | P - S | T | U - Y Cervical cancer Cervical Cancer Outline 1. Introduction What is cancer of the cervix? Statistical evidence about cancer of the cervix? 2. Risk factors and preventions 3. Detection and Symptoms 4. Types of treatment What Is Cervical Cancer The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb). The uterus is divided into two parts. The upper part or body of the uterus is where a fetus grows. The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). The part of the cervix closest to the body of the uterus is called the endo-cervix. The part next to the vagina is the ecto-cervix. Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lining of the cervix. Cervical cancers do not form suddenly; there is a gradual change of normal cells within the cervix. Some women with pre-cancerous changes of the cervix will develop cancer. This usually takes several years but sometimes can happen in less than a year. For some women, pre-cancerous changes may go away without any treatment. More often, if these pre-cancers are treated, true cancers can be prevented. Precancerous changes can be separated into several categories based on how the cells of the cervix look under a microscope. There are several systems for naming and describing these categories of potentially cancerous or pre-cancerous changes. There are two main types of cervical cancers: "squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. About 85%-90% of cervical cancers are squamous cells carcinomas. They begin in the ectocervix, most often at its border with the endocervix. The remaining 10%-15% of cervical cancers are adenocarcinomas. Cervical adenocarcinoma develops from the mucus-producing gland cells of the endocervix. Less commonly, cervical cancers have features of both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. These are called adenosquamous carcinomas or mixed carcinomas. "The American Cancer Society estimates that during 2000, about 12,800 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. Some researchers estimate that noninvasive cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ) is about 4 times more common than invasive cervical cancer. About 4,600 women will die from cervical cancer in the United States during 2000. Cervical cancer was once one of the most common causes of cancer death for American women. Between 1955 and 1992, the number of cervical cancer deaths in the United States declined by 74%. The main reason for this change is the increased use of the Pap test, a screening procedure that permits diagnosis of pre-invasive and early invasive cancer. The death rate continues to decline at a rate of about 2% a year. The 5-year relative survival rate for the earliest stage of invasive cervical cancer is 91%. The overall (all stages combined) 5- year survival rate for cervical cancer is about 70%. For cervical precancer the 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%. "(cite a source here) Risk Factors There are several factors that increase a woman’s risk of developing cervical cancer. Women without any of these risk factors rarely develop cervical cancer. Although these risk factors increase the odds of
developing cervical cancer, many women with these risks do not develop this disease. When a woman

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