annotatedbibliographynotes - Welch John S"Ritual in Western...

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Welch, John S. "Ritual in Western Medicine and Its Role in Placebo Healing." Journal of Religion & Health . 42.1 (2003): 21-33. Print. Placebo effect in healing rituals Ritual serves two important social functions: o Shape society and culture by affirming the society’s worldview and motivating people to model their everyday lives by them o Takes the participant out of a state of chaos/evil and brings into state of order Talks about how performing a ritual can make you believe in the effectiveness of a given tool o If you brush your teeth every day and realize you have nice teeth, you begin to believe in the effectiveness of the ritual Tong, Cheu Hock. "The Festival of the Nine Emperor Gods in Malaysia: Myth, Ritual, and Symbol." Asian Folklore Studies . 55.1 (1996): 49-72. Print. “Although ritual is related to myth, its performance does not require an understanding of myth.” (55) Belief complements and supplements ritual o Belief=theory o Ritual=practical expression Rituals create and sustain belief o It is through rituals that symbols become meaningful in context Marshall, Douglas A. "Behavior, Belonging, and Belief: A Theory of Ritual Practice." Sociological Theory . 20.3 (2002): 360-380. Print. Practice of ritual produces two outcomes:
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o Belief The certainty and confidence stemming from ritual practice “A step beyond knowledge” o Belonging The attraction, identification, and cohesion “A step beyond membership” Primary outcomes/functions of ritual: o Social integration o Sense of unity Crucial aspects of ritual practice: attentional control and focus o Has positive effects on participant’s mental state o The target/content of the attentional focus is important in channelling belief and belonging Physical activity=a means of producing endogenous opioids o Endorphins- feelings of pain, danger, excitement, love, etc. Draper, Jonathan A. "Ritual Process and Ritual Symbol in "Didache" 7-10." Vigiliae Christianae . 54.2 (2000): 121-158. Print.
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