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miller, investiture

miller, investiture - Maps and lllustrations MAPS 1 K e y C...

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Introduction: The Investiture Conflict in Western History It was no wonder that if one household wasentirely faithful, another waswholly unfaithful, and in a third a mother and child were believ- ing, while a father and another child were unbelieving' Thus, the "ntr" city wasfull of disorder and divided by conflict.' \ Andrew of Strumi, ca' 1075 Our island has not yet repudiated the one nor decided whether to obey the other. When the tase for tioth sides hasbeen heard (if that .troirra happen), it will be possible to see more clearly what is to be done. -Archbishop lanfranc of Canterbury to HughCandidus, 1085 (Document 27) In the late eleventh century, a movement for reform within the west- ern church led to a dramatic conflict between its leader,Pope Gregory vII, and the foremost sovereign in Europe, Emperor Henry IV. Called the investiture conflict (or the investiture "struggle" or "crisis"), this battle between the pope and the emperor divided the continent for decades. The flashpoint came in 1076 when Henry IV withdrew alle- giance from the pop". Gregory responded by excommunicating ft"nry, declaring him deposed, and urging his subjects to rise up against him. They did, plunging the empire into civil war' As Pope Gregory *". tr*eling north to meet with Henry's opposition and
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INTRODUC*IION INTRODUCTION elect a new king, the monarch intercepted him at the castle of canossa in northern Italy. In a dramatic and desperate gesture, Henry stood barefoot in the snow outside the castle walls for three dayi, garbed as a penitent, stripped of all the trappings of royalty, begging to be reconciled with the church. Gregory absolved him, nrt the enraged opposition to Henry went ahead and elected an antiking, Rudolf of Swabia. The war ground on. In 10g0 pope Gregory renewed his excommunication of Henry because he continued to invest bish- ops. The monarch, in turn, withdrew allegiance from the pope and sponsored the election of an antipope (crement III). That fall, Henry defeatedthe antiking Rudolf and then took his army to Rome. He chased Gregory from the city and had Clement III enthronedas pope. Even after Gregory died in exile in 1085, the conflict continued: ii out- lived Henry, too. only in lrz2 did a set of agreements reached at Worms in the German empire officially end the investiture conflict. The issues raised by the reform movement that fueled this conflict elicited strong feelings: As Andrew of Strumi recorded, they polarized neighbors and even divided families in Milan. In the broadliarena of European politics, the conflict between pope and emperor posed diffi- cult, if not impossible, choices. Even the most educated observers, like Archbishop lanfranc (Document 2T), found that the complex issues, actions, and personalities involved made simple or decisive responses difficult.
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