Exam 2 Study Guide - E xam 2 Study Guide HLTH 140 Chapter...

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Exam 2 Study Guide HLTH 140 Chapter 10 Define physical fitness. The body’s ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical efforts Protect from disease Helps withstand physical challenges Describe the health-related components of physical fitness, and be able to identify activities/exercise that improve each component. Cardiorespitory endurance : delivers oxygen to the working muscles Muscular strength : amount of force a muscle can produce for a single maximum effort Muscular endurance : sustain a given level of muscle tension Flexibility : ability to move joints through full range of motion Body composition : amount of lean body tissue vs. body fat Skill-related components of fitness : speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, reaction time, sport specific Discuss how regular exercise reduces the risk of many chronic diseases and can help people with those diseases improve their health. Heart Disease (cardiovascular disease) Cancer (colon, prostate, breast, reproductive in women) Osteroporsis (bone density decrease) Type 2 diabetes (prevent development of it) Describe 4 basic principles of physical training. Discuss the steps involved in developing muscular strength and muscular endurance. Choosing equipment : weight machines are safe, convenient, and easy to use and easy to isolate and work specific muscles (free weights require more care, balance, and coordinate but they strengthen your body in ways that are more adaptable to real life) Choosing Exercises : complete weight training program works all the major muscle groups: neck, upper back, shoulders, arm, chest, abdomen, lower back,
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thighs, buttocks and calves (takes 8-10 exercises to get a complete workout for general fitness) Frequency : at least 2 nonconsecutive days per week, one or more days of rest in between and avoids soreness and injury (or work alternative muscles each day if you want to work out every day) Intensity and Time : the amount of weight you lift in weight training exercises is equivalent to intensity in cardiorespiratory endurance training – the number of repetitions of each exercise is equivalent to time In order to improve fitness, you must do enough repetitions of each exercise to temporarily fatigue your muscles Heavy weight/low number of repetitions = build strength Light weight/high number of repetitions = build endurance Try 8-12 repetitions of each exercise (if you can only do 4-6 or you cant maintain good form, lower the weight) Types of strength and training exercise : Resistance exercise: muscles exert force against a significant amount of resistance Isometric (static) exercises: applying force without movement (valued for toning and strengthening muscles, require no equipment) - hold for 6 seconds, do 5-10 repetitions (do not hold your breath it restricts blood flow to your heart and brain) Isometric (dynamic exercises): applying force with movement, as in weight training with bench presses (most popular and can be transferred to other forms of physical activity) Chapter 11
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