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CHAPTER 10: CORRECTIONS Corrections : The variety of programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of people who have been accused or convicted of criminal offense INVENTION OF THE PENITENTIARY Enlightenment: philosophers and reformers challenged tradition with new ideas about the individual, about limitation on government and about rationalism o Reformers began to raise questions about the nature of criminal behavior and the methods of punishment Prior to 1800 physical punishment such as flogging and branding o Jails existed only to hold people awaiting trail or to punish people unable to pay their debts Enlightenment brought the decrease of physical punishment New Goal: not to inflict pain on the offender’s body but to change the individual and set him or her on the right path Penitentiary : An institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society and from one another so they can reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and reform o At night confined in individual cells, but during the day they silently worked in common rooms REFORM IN THE UNITED STATES THE PENNSYLVANIA SYSTEM Argued criminals could best be reformed if they were placed in penitentiaries : isolated form one another and from society to consider their crimes, represent and reform Separate Confinement: A penitentiary system, developed in Pennsylvania, in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates o All activities including craft work, took place in the cells o Abolished in 1913 THE NEW YORK SYSTEM Evolved as a rival to the Pennsylvania system of separate confinement
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Congregation System : A penitentiary system in which each inmate was held in isolation during the night but worked and ate with other prisoners during the day under a rule of silence Elam Lynds o Instituted a regime of discipline and obedience that included the lockstep and the wearing of prison strips o Contract Labor System: inmates’ labor was sold on a contractual basis to private employers who provided the machinery and raw materials with which inmates made salable products in the institution PRISIONS ON THE SOUTH AND WEST Lease System : inmates were leased to contractors who provided prisoners with food and clothing in exchange for their labor REFORMATORY MOVEMENT Within 40 years of being built, penitentiaries became overcrowded, understaffed and minimally financed CINCINNATI, 1870 Prisons should operate according to a philosophy of inmate change, with reformation rewarded by release Proof of reformation, rather than mere lapse of time, would be required for prisoner’s release ELMIRA REFORMATION Reformatory : an institution for young offenders that emphasizes training, a mark system of classification, intermediate sentences, and parole Zebulon Brockway = superintendent Mark System : prisoners can reduce their term of imprisonment and gain release by
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2010 for the course CCJS 100 taught by Professor Gaston during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.

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