TEST TWO OUTLINES

TEST TWO OUTLINES - 5 - Natural Hazards 09/27/07 ← 1....

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Unformatted text preview: 5 - Natural Hazards 09/27/07 ← 1. Hazards are predictable from scientific evaluation • Earthquakes, eruptions, floods landslides • Identification and study, mapping and monitoring ← 2. Risk analysis is important to understand the impact of natural hazards • Based on probability and consequences ← 3. Hazards are Linked • One hazard can lead to another • IE: Quakes landslides, tsunamis Hurricanes flooding, coastal erosion ← 4. Disasters are Turning to Catastrophes • Disasters = damage • Catastrophe = region cannot repair • Size and frequency • Population shifts, poor land use ← 5. Consequences can be Minimized • Understanding, land use, preparedness ← ← Natural Disasters Have Always Happened • Disasters are when they intersect with population density and land use patterns urbanization, deforestation • Geologists ID hazardous processes awareness, alternatives ← ← Natural Hazards are Repetitive • Historical & geological history o Gauging stations o Seismometers/tilt meter • Prehistoric Events o Sedimentary layers • Recognize landforms o Delta vs. floodplains ← ← Magnitude vs. Frequency • Larger event, less likely to occur • Smaller event, more likely to occur ← ← Hazardous Events are Linked • Hurricanes flood, coastal erosion, landslide • Shale: landslides • Granite: Sliding on fractures • Limestone: Sinkhole collapse ← ← Greatest Loss of Life ≠ Highest Monetary Damage • Deaths tornadoes, lightening, floods • Property earthquakes, landslides, soils (clays) ← ← Catastrophe • Damage takes years to recover from • Require outside assistance • High: flood, hurricane, tornado, quakes, wildfire • Medium: landslide, drought • Low: Coastal erosion, frost, lightening, soils ← ← Disaster Prediction and Warring • Goal: Minimize loss of life and property damage • Probability + consequence = possible risk warning • Locations o Global Scale volcanoes, earthquakes o Regional Scale areas affected o Local Scale locate and ID dangers • Probability of Occurrences o Probability within time span averages • Precursor Events o Creep before landslide o Buldge before volcanic eruption o Foreshocks before earthquakes • Forecasting o Mississippi Flooding o Atlantic Hurricane o Tsunami Buoys • Warning o Inform the public o Predictions can be wrong (Mammoth Lake, Bishop CA) ← ← Risk • Risk determination • Risk = Probability X Consequences • Acceptable risk o Depends on society, individuals and situation (ie Harry Truman, 1980) • Problems and opportunities o Lack of reliable data methods improving, publicity ← ← Human Responses • REACTIVE o Impact...
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2010 for the course GEO 120 taught by Professor Tracey during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.

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TEST TWO OUTLINES - 5 - Natural Hazards 09/27/07 ← 1....

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