CHapter 8 - Chapter 8 Chapter 8: Intelligence and Academic...

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Chapter 8 Chapter 8: Intelligence and Academic Achievement OVERVIEW France = universal public education and some children were not learning well Want to identify children who would have a problem and then give them special education however did not know how to find them o Ask students to identify children that needed help but thought teachers would be biased o Easy-to-administer test to children Intelligence is based on simple tasks o Children that are adept at simpler tasks have an easier time learning o Skills however are only related to broader, everyday indicator of intelligence Binet Simon Intelligence Test = children were asked to interpret provebs, solve puzzles, name objects, and sequence frames of cartoons so they made sense o Successful o Influences all research in this topic o The ways in which younger children differ from older children o And how and why children of the same age different from each other Roles of heredity and environment on environment Individual difference Active child and sociocultural context WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE
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Intelligence as a single trait: Single entity that influences all aspect of cognitive functioning Performance on all intellectual tasks is positively correlated G, general intelligence = omnipresent positive correlation should that each of us possess a certain amount of this and it influences our cognitive ability to think and learn on all intellectual tasks. o The part of intelligence hat is common to all intellectual tasks Overall intelligence correlates with achievement test, processing speed, and brain volume. Also with people knowledge about other things Intelligence as a few basic abilities: Intelligence in a single entity Fluid intelligence = ability to think on the spot/solve novel problems o Closely related with ability to learn and speed of processing, working memory and controlling attention o Related to brain size o Peaks at 20 and declines after Crystallized intelligence = factual knowledge about the world; word meanings, state capitals, arithmetic problems, and so on o Long term memory for prior experience o Verbal ability o Increases steadily Each type of memory correlates more highly with each other They have different developmental courses Primary mental abilities = word fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning, spatial visualization, numbering, rote memory, perception speed o Usefulness of diving intelligence into 7 parts o Greater precision of the idea of seven primary mental models
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o Thurstone thought this to be crucial Intelligence as Multiple Processes: Comprising numerous distinct processes o Information processing analyses of how people solve intelligence test items and how they perform everyay intellectual tasks such as reading, writing, arithmetic revel many processes are involved o Many things allows more precise specification of the processes Proposed Resolution: Three stratum theory of intelligence =
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2010 for the course PSYC 353 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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CHapter 8 - Chapter 8 Chapter 8: Intelligence and Academic...

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