Exam #2 STUDY GUIDE - PSYC355 Fall 2009 Study Guide Exam 2...

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PSYC355, Fall 2009 Study Guide – Exam 2 Theories of Cognitive Development and Infant Cognition 10/5/2009 and 10/7/2009 What is a theory? Why are theories of child development useful? Why isn’t there just one theory? Be prepared to describe each theory of cognitive development. For example, for Piaget’s theory, why are children considered scientists? How does his theory explain the influence of nature and nurture? What are the sources of continuity and discontinuity? Does his theory seem to emphasize one over the other? Describe the developmental progression that a child takes through all of Piaget’s stages and substages of cognitive development. Why is Piaget’s theory both influential and criticized? Compare and contrast how the four theories of cognitive development on how they view children and their central developmental issues. What are the six different ways that infants learn about their world? Conceptual Development 10/12/2009 How does categorization help children understand what kinds of things are in the world and how these things are related to each other? Why/how do children have a naïve psychology? A common sense level of understanding of other people and one self (obtained without formal instruction) o Desire o Belief o Action How do children acquire knowledge about living vs. non-living things? Animals and plants are a great deal of interest to young children and when animals are present, infants and toddlers pay close attention to them – by age of 4, children develop quite elaborative understandings of living things, including coherent ideas about invisible processes such as growth, inheritance, illness and healing How do children develop and understanding of where, when, why, and how many? Memory Development / Executive Function 10/14/2009 What is memory? What are the basic processes of memory? o Memory is the retention of information over time
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Is memory like pudding? Is it a monolithic entity? Is it a tape-recorder, a camera, or computer? Be able to justify your answer. o Memory is not “pudding” (pudding is all the same) o Short term/Long term o Implicit/Explicit How does memory change from infancy to adulthood? o Fuzzy Trace Theory o Preschool tend to remember verbatim more o Elementary school tends to remember gist more o Fuzzy traces are less likely to be forgotten than verbatim Academic Achievement & Intelligence 10/19/2009 What basic understanding of numbers do infants possess? How have researchers determined what infants understand about the concept of number? How does the rudimentary sense of number provide a base for learning arithmetic and more advanced mathematical skills? o Discriminate between small numbers = subitizing (1/2/3) you don’t need to count, you “just now” What does learning mathematics require? Hint: Dr. Ramani described four.
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