UNIT 10: U.S. Foreign Policy, 1898-1918 (Chapters 19 and 21)-Spanish-American War (1898) “A splendid little war”- Secretary of State John Hay-The US defeated Spanish forces in just 4 months -More than 5000 Americans die, but mostly from infection and disease (malaria, dysentery, typhoid)-African-Americans soldiers played a significant role-Causes-Economic-US business interests and trade were being disrupted by the Civil war in Cuba-US victory would increase its economic influence in the region-Humanitarian-Cuban Revolution: atrocities committed by Spanish and Cubans-General Weyler of Spain implemented the “Reconstruction Policy”-War Fever-Yellow Journalism-De Lome Letter-sinking of USS Maine-Effects-Treaty of Paris (1899) ratified by just one vote beyond the required ⅔-Spain recognizes Cuba’s independence but the US controls its politics and economy. Cuba becomes a protectorate of US-Spain cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to the US-Spain cedes Philippines to S for $20 million-US is recognized as a world power, but a national debate over imperialism begins-De Lome Letter-Letter from Spanish official was “leaked” to press. It portrayed President McKinley as weak. Considered an insult by many Americans-USS Maine-US Battleship exploded in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898, killing 266 sailors-Spanish were falsely blamed-War hysteria swept the US with the help of Yellow Journalism-On April 25, US declared war on Spain-Yellow Journalism-Sensationalist reporting of the late 1800s that exaggerated and distorted events for emotional effect with the ultimate goal of increasing newspaper circulation-The newspapers were constantly competing with each other, which would cause them to do little orno research and instead add a catchy title to attract readers and increase sales.-Yellow Journalism attempted to appeal to patriotism and moral outrage by including exaggerated reports of Spanish atrocities toward the Cuban rebels.-Rough Riders-Roosevelt served as the commander of the First US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment-“Roughriders” was the nickname of the cavalry, they led a heroic charge up San Juan Hill (Kettle Hill)-Teddy used his military exploits to further his political ambitions-Imperialism-The policy or practice of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas-Alfred Thayer Mahan-A captain and a later admiral of the Navy-His thesis, presented in The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890), was that countries with sea power were the great nations of history; the greatness of the US, bounded by two oceans,
would rest on its naval strength-Feared that US did not have a large enough navy to play the great role he envisioned.