Copy_of_USH_FP_and_1920s_Review_Sheet - UNIT 10 U.S Foreign...

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UNIT 10: U.S. Foreign Policy, 1898-1918 (Chapters 19 and 21) - Spanish-American War (1898) “A splendid little war”- Secretary of State John Hay - The US defeated Spanish forces in just 4 months - More than 5000 Americans die, but mostly from infection and disease (malaria, dysentery, typhoid) - African-Americans soldiers played a significant role - Causes - Economic - US business interests and trade were being disrupted by the Civil war in Cuba - US victory would increase its economic influence in the region - Humanitarian - Cuban Revolution: atrocities committed by Spanish and Cubans - General Weyler of Spain implemented the “Reconstruction Policy” - War Fever - Yellow Journalism - De Lome Letter - sinking of USS Maine - Effects - Treaty of Paris (1899) ratified by just one vote beyond the required - Spain recognizes Cuba’s independence but the US controls its politics and economy. Cuba becomes a protectorate of US - Spain cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to the US - Spain cedes Philippines to S for $20 million - US is recognized as a world power, but a national debate over imperialism begins - De Lome Letter - Letter from Spanish official was “leaked” to press. It portrayed President McKinley as weak. Considered an insult by many Americans - USS Maine - US Battleship exploded in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898, killing 266 sailors - Spanish were falsely blamed - War hysteria swept the US with the help of Yellow Journalism - On April 25, US declared war on Spain - Yellow Journalism - Sensationalist reporting of the late 1800s that exaggerated and distorted events for emotional effect with the ultimate goal of increasing newspaper circulation - The newspapers were constantly competing with each other, which would cause them to do little or no research and instead add a catchy title to attract readers and increase sales. - Yellow Journalism attempted to appeal to patriotism and moral outrage by including exaggerated reports of Spanish atrocities toward the Cuban rebels. - Rough Riders - Roosevelt served as the commander of the First US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment - “Roughriders” was the nickname of the cavalry, they led a heroic charge up San Juan Hill (Kettle Hill) - Teddy used his military exploits to further his political ambitions - Imperialism - The policy or practice of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas - Alfred Thayer Mahan - A captain and a later admiral of the Navy - His thesis, presented in The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890), was that countries with sea power were the great nations of history; the greatness of the US, bounded by two oceans,
would rest on its naval strength - Feared that US did not have a large enough navy to play the great role he envisioned.

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