Lecture Notes (4-07-09) - Schools as Sorting Machine The...

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Schools as Sorting Machine The Development of Schooling Modern Education -instruction of pupils within specially desgined school premises began to ermege with the spread of printed materials and higher levels of literacy Industrialization leads to -a demand for a better-educated labor force -modern educational systems The Development of Schooling Schooling in the United States has its origins in the Puritan belief that all children should obey their parents without questions All states in the United States provided free elementary schooling by the 1850s The Development of Schooling Compulsory education was introduced in most states toward the end of the 19 th century In the U.S., education was seen as an avenue of mobility in a society in which the aristocratic ideal had never held sway (Rate of high-school graduation: Asian-Americans highest, then Whites; Mexican- Americans lowest; rate of college graduation: Asian-Americans highest, then Whites; Mexican-Americans again lowest; African-Americans third in both categories) Education and Inequality: Coleman and Jencks Family background plays the decisive influence on students’ educational performance. Material resources provided in schools made little difference to educational performance. Education tends to express and reaffirm existing inequalities more than it changes them. The formal school curriculum is only one part of a more general process of social reproduction.
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The hidden curriculum plays a significant role in social reproduction. Education and Inequality Jonathan Kozol (1991) studies schools in about 30 neighborhoods in the United States. His findings showed huge disparity in school resources among the school he studied. Kozol’s book is called Savage Inequalities Are educational opportunities equal for everyone?
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