armstrong05_basic - Consumer and Business Buyer Behavior...

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Unformatted text preview: Consumer and Business Buyer Behavior Chapter 5 Road Map: Previewing the Concepts • Understand the consumer market and the major factors that influence consumer buyer behavior. • Identify and discuss the stages in the buyer decision process. • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products. 5-2 Road Map: Previewing the Concepts • Define the business market and identify the major factors that influence business buyer behavior. • List and define the steps in the business buying decision process. 5-3 Consumer Buying Behavior • • • Refers to the buying behavior of people who buy goods and services for personal use. These people make up the consumer market. The central question for marketers is: “How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use?” 5-4 Culture • Culture is the Most Basic Cause of a Person's Wants and Behavior. • Culture is learned from family, church, school, peers, colleagues. • Culture includes basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors. 5-5 Culture • Subculture Groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences. Hispanic Consumers African­American Consumers Asian­American Consumers Mature Consumers • Major Groups 5-6 Culture Social Class • Society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. • Measured by a combination of: occupation, income, education, wealth, and other variables. 5-7 Social Factors • Groups: • Family: Membership, Reference (Opinion Leaders) Aspirational Most important consumer buying organization Role = Expected activities Status = Esteem given to role by society 5-8 • Roles & Status: Personal Factors • Age and Life­Cycle Stage • Occupation • Economic Situation 5-9 Personal Factors • Lifestyle: Pattern of living as expressed in psychographics Activities Interests Opinions 5 - 10 Personality & Self­Concept • Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. • Generally defined in terms of traits. • Self­concept suggests that people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities. 5 - 11 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Related Products 12 Perception Information Inputs Interpretation Selective Exposure Selective Distortion Selective Retention 5 - 13 Learning • A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. • Interplay of drives, stimuli, cues, responses, and reinforcement. • Strongly influenced by the consequences of an individual’s behavior Behaviors with satisfying results tend to be repeated. Behaviors with unsatisfying results tend not to be repeated. 5 - 14 Beliefs & Attitudes • A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. An attitude is a person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea. 5 - 15 • EKB MOD EL OF BUYER BEHAVIOR IN PU T IN FORMATION PROCESSIN G D ECISION PROCESS Problem Recognition Exposure Attention Stimuli Marketer Dominated Other Comprehension Yielding/ acceptance Retention External Search Outcomes Memory Search D ECISION PROCESS VARIABLES Motives EXTERNAL IN FLU EN CES Beliefs Evaluative criteria Life­style Normative Compliance & info influence Alternative Evaluation Cultural norm & values Reference group Attitude Intention Choice Unanticipated circumstances Dissonance Satisfaction 16 Buying Decision Process • Need recognition • Information search • Evaluation of alternatives • Purchase decision • Postpurchase behavior 5 - 17 Sources of Information • Personal • Commercial • Public • Experiential 5 - 18 Buying Decision Process • Factors that influence purchase decision: Attitudes of others Unexpected situational factors 5 - 19 Buying Decision Process • Consumer satisfaction is a function of consumer expectations and perceived product performance. • Performance < Expectations ­­­­­ Disappointment • Performance = Expectations ­­­­­ Satisfaction • Performance > Expectations ­­­­­ Delight 5 - 20 Buying Decision Process • Cognitive dissonance: a buyer’s doubts shortly after a purchase about whether it was the right decision. 5 - 21 Stages in the Adoption Process 1. Awareness: Consumer becomes aware 2. 3. 4. 5. of the new product, but lacks information about it. Interest: Consumer seeks information about new product. Evaluation: Consumer considers whether trying the new product makes sense. Trial: Consumer tries new product on a small scale to improve his or her estimate of its value. Adoption: Consumer decides to make full and regular use of the new product. 5 - 22 Product Adopter Categories • Innovators • Early adopters • Early majority • Late majority • Laggards 5 - 23 Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption • Relative Advantage: Is the innovation superior to existing products? • Compatibility: Does the innovation fit the values and experience of the target market? • Complexity: Is the innovation difficult to understand or use? • Divisibility: Can the innovation be used on a limited basis? • Communicability: Can results be easily observed or described to others? 5 - 24 Business Markets & Business Buyer Behavior • The business market is vast and involves far more dollars and items than do consumer markets. • Business buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of the organizations that buy goods and services for use in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others. 5 - 25 Business Markets • Market Structure and • Nature of the Demand: Buying Unit: Contains far fewer but Business larger buyers. purchases involve Customers are more more decision geographically participants. concentrated. Business buying Business demand is involves a more derived from professional consumer demand. purchasing effort. 5 - 26 Types of Decisions and the Decision Process • Business buyers usually face more complex buying decisions. • Business buying process tends to be more formalized. • Buyers and sellers are much more dependent on each other. 5 - 27 Types of Buying Situations • Straight rebuy • Modified rebuy • New Task 5 - 28 Participants in the Business Buying Process • Decision­making unit of a buying organization is called its buying center. • Not a fixed and formally identified unit. • Membership will vary for different products and buying situations. • Buying Center Members: Users Deciders Influencers Buyers Gatekeepers 5 - 29 Influences on Business Buyer Behavior • Environmental • Organizational • Interpersonal • Individual 5 - 30 The Business Buying Process 1. Problem recognition 2. General need description 3. Product specification 4. Supplier search 1. Proposal solicitation 2. Supplier selection 3. Order­routine specification 4. Performance review 5 - 31 THE INDUSTRIAL BUY-GRID FRAMEWORK BUY CLASSES BUY PHASES 1. Anticipation or recognition of a problem or need and a general solution 2. Determination of characteristics and quantity of needed item 3. Description of characteristics and quantity of needed item 4. Search for and qualification of potential sources of supply 5. Acquisition and analysis of proposals 6. Evaluation of proposals and selection of supplier(s) 7. Selection of order routine 8. Performance of feedback and evaluation NEW TASK YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES MODIFIED REBUY YES MAYBE MAYBE MAYBE MAYBE MAYBE MAYBE YES STRAIGHT REBUY YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES Source: Adapted from Patrick J. Robinson, Charles W. Faris, and Yoram Wind, Industrial Buying and Creative Marketing, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1967, p. 14. e­Procurement • Advantages for buyers: Access to new suppliers Lowers purchasing costs Hastens order processing and delivery Share information with customers Sell products and services Provide customer support services Maintain ongoing customer relationships 5 - 33 • Advantages for vendors: ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2010 for the course MKTG 360 taught by Professor Johne.robbins during the Fall '08 term at Winthrop.

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