armstrong08_basic - New­Product Development and Product...

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Unformatted text preview: New­Product Development and Product Life­Cycle Strategies Chapter 8 Road Map: Previewing the Concepts • Explain how companies find and develop new­product ideas. • List and define the steps in the new­product development process. • Describe the stages of the product life cycle. • Describe how marketing strategies change during the product’s life cycle. 8-2 New­Product Development Strategy • Strategies for Obtaining New­ Product Ideas: Acquisition of companies, patients, licenses Original products, improvements, modifications 8-3 New­Product Failures • • • Only 10% of new products still on the market and profitable after 3 years. Failure rate for industrial products as high as 30%. Why? Overestimation of market size Design problems Incorrectly positioned, priced, or advertised Pushed despite poor marketing research findings Development costs Competition 8-4 • • • • • • • • Idea generation Idea screening Major Stages in New­ Product Development Concept development and testing Marketing strategy development Business analysis Product development Test marketing Commercialization 8-5 Idea Generation • • • • • Company employees Customers Competitors Distributors Suppliers 8-6 Idea Screening • • Process to spot good ideas and drop poor ones. Develop system to estimate: market size, product price, development time and costs, manufacturing costs, and rate of return. Evaluate these findings against set of company criteria for new products. 8-7 • • • • Concept Development and Testing Product Idea: idea for a possible product that the company can see itself offering. Product Concept: detailed version of the idea stated in meaningful consumer terms. Product Image: the way consumers perceive an actual or potential product. 8-8 Marketing Strategy Development • Part One Describes: The target market, planned product positions, sales, market share, and profit goals Product’s planned price, distribution, and marketing budget Sales and profit goals, marketing mix 8-9 • Part Two Outlines the First Year’s: Part Three Describes Long­Run: • Business Analysis • Involves a review of the sales, costs, and profit projections to assess fit with company objectives. If yes, move to the product development phase. 8 - 10 • Product Development • • • • Develop concept into physical product Calls for large jump in investment Prototypes are made Prototype must have correct physical features and convey psychological characteristics 8 - 11 Test Marketing • • • Product and program introduced in more realistic market setting. Not needed for all products. Can be expensive and time consuming, but better than making major marketing mistake. 8 - 12 Commercialization • • Must decide on timing (i.e., when to introduce the product). Must decide on where to introduce the product (e.g., single location, state, region, nationally, internationally). Must develop a market rollout plan. 8 - 13 • Organizing New­Product Development • Sequential Approach: each stage completed before moving to next phase of the project. Simultaneous Approach: Cross­ functional teams work through overlapping steps to save time and increase effectiveness. 8 - 14 • The Product Life Cycle • • • • • Product development Introduction Growth Maturity Decline 8 - 15 Product Life Cycle Applications • • • • • • Product class has the longest life cycle (e.g., gas­ powered cars) Product form tends to have the standard PLC shape (e.g., dial telephone) Brand can changequickly because of changing competitive attacks and responses (e.g., Tide, Cheer) Style is a basic and distinctive mode of expression (e.g., formal clothing, Danish modern furniture) Fashion is a popular style in a given field (e.g., business casual) Fad is a fashion that enters quickly, is adopted quickly, and declines fast (e.g., pet rocks) 8 - 16 Practical Problems of PLC • • • • • Hard to identify which stage of the PLC the product is in. Hard to pinpoint when the product moves to the next stage. Hard to identify factors that affect product’s movement through stages. Hard to forecast sales level, length of each stage, and shape of PLC. Strategy is both a cause and result of the PLC. 8 - 17 • • • • • • • • Introduction Stage of PLC Sales: low Costs: high cost per customer Profits: negative Marketing Objective: create product awareness and trial Product: offer a basic product Price: use cost­plus formula Distribution: build selective distribution Promotion: heavy to entice product trial 8 - 18 Growth Stage of PLC • • • • • • • • Sales: rapidly rising Costs: average cost per customer Profits: rising Marketing Objective: maximize market share Product: offer extension, service, warranty Price: penetration strategy Distribution: build intensive distribution Promotion: reduce to take advantage of demand 8 - 19 Maturity Stage of PLC • • • • • • • • Sales: peak Costs: low cost per customer Profits: high Marketing Objective: maximize profits while defending market share Product: diversify brand and models Price: match or best competitors Distribution: build more intensive distribution Promotion: Increase to encourage brand switching 8 - 20 Maturity Stage of the PLC • • Modifying the Market: Increase the consumption of the current product. How? Look for new users and market segments Reposition the brand to appeal to larger or faster­growing segment Look for ways to increase usage among present customers 8 - 21 Maturity Stage of the PLC • Modifying the Product: Changing characteristics such as quality, features, or style to attract new users and to inspire more usage. How? Improve durability, reliability, speed, taste Improve styling and attractiveness Add new features Expand usefulness, safety, convenience • 8 - 22 Maturity Stage of the PLC • • Modifying the Marketing Mix: Improving sales by changing one or more marketing mix elements. How? Cut prices Launch a better ad campaign Move into larger market channels Offer new or improved services to buyers 8 - 23 Decline Stage of PLC • • • • • • • • Sales: declining Costs: low cost per customer Profits: declining Marketing Objective: reduce expenditures and milk the brand Product: phase out weak items Price: cut price Distribution: selective­­phase out unprofitable outlets Promotion: reduce to minimal level 8 - 24 ...
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