ARH 252 Vocabulary (4) - ARH252Vocabulary...

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ARH 252 Vocabulary Chapter 1: Art Before History Subtractive Method —cutting into material (stone, wood, etc.) to create a sculpture Additive Method —building a sculpture on an armature or framework; casting, or using plastics,  clay, or other flexible materials Chapter 2: The Ancient Near East Ziggurat —at temple tower in the form of a truncated pyramid built in diminishing stages, each  stage being reached by ramps Battered —the inclined or sloped sides of a wall Crenellated (Crenellations) —noted or indented, usually with respect to tops of walls (such as  battlements) Polytheism —belief in many gods Hierarchy —a group of persons organized according to rank, capacity, or authority, (a body of  entities arranged in a graded series) Stele —an upright, carved stone slab used as a grave marker and to commemorate historical  events Relief —in sculpture, figures or designs projecting from a background of which they are a part;  the degree of carving or modeling may vary from high to low.  Bas/Low Relief —shallow or sunken carving where the design does not project much from is  background High Relief —Deep carving in which the design projects quite far from its background Scale —one system for determining the sizes of figures and/or objects in a work of art used  consistently throughout—e.g. if a one foot figure in the work of art stands for a six foot  man in the real world, this size relationship is consistently applied throughout the work  (thus, all objects and/or figures “make sense” in comparison to one another) Double Scale —more than one system for determining the sizes of figures and/or objects used in  a work of art, often based on the importance of certain figures; some figures or objects ill  appear unnaturally smaller or larger than others Proportion —a part considered in relation to the whole Chapter 3: Egypt Under the Pharaohs Hieroglyphs/ or Hieroglyphics —is a system of writing/communicating using pictures, sounds,  consonants (no vowels); could be used horizontally or vertically. Meant to communicate  with the gods; most couldn’t read, 90-95% of the population was illiterate Canon of Proportions —a set of rules that governed the relationship of all body parts Capstone —huge block in the shape of a pyramid and highly polished
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Ka —Immortal Human “substance” the other self that is present since birth; this concept is  similar to the Western idea of the soul Negative Space —the open or empty area enclosed by positive mass; most often used when  discussing sculpture Realism
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