notes-eukaryotes protein regulation

notes-eukaryotes protein regulation - Regulation of protein...

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Regulation of protein synthesis in Eukaryotes Several steps needed for synthesis of mRNA (in nucleus) Then it goes into cytoplasm, where it is translated and proteins are actually made Therefore, separation in space of transcription and translation Compartmentation of proteins- cell is complex structure of cytoplasm Why is eukaryotic gene expression so complex? Evolutionary reason Graph- eukaryotes have evolved from combination of bacteria and archea; joining of those two domains (Not that they evolved differently or anything) Archaea- provided genes for DNA metabolism, transcription, translation, DNA repair (genes in our cells from this) Bacteria- provided genes for carbs, amino acid, lipid, metabolism Bacterial genes still persist in mitochondria and chloroplasts Complexities- Epigenetics- which genes are expressed? Major parts of DNA can be methylated- T base has methyl group, but sometimes C base can as well; this means that part of DNA does not function as well, so putting methyl groups on that part is kind of like a control for what DNA/genes can be expressed Histone- proteins that the DNA is wound around; can be methylated (histones doesn’t come off the DNA well) or acetylated (tends to removal of histones) Modification of histone proteins- basically determines if histones come off the DNA quickly or not siRNA- RNA molecules in the nucleus that inhibit the remodeling of the chromatin
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once it is determined which genes will be expressed, then there are other steps that are needed for the synthesis of mRNA: uncoiling of chromatin, remodeling of chromatin (removal of histones), transcription, processing DNA must uncoil first to be used as a template; unwinds through several steps to show DNA Need to take histones off to get DNA How do we know has to unwind to express DNA information? Some unwinds, some doesn’t
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notes-eukaryotes protein regulation - Regulation of protein...

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