t01AComputerIntroHardware - Introduction to Computers...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Computers - Hardware What is a Computer? What Computer Device capable of performing computations and making Device logical decisions logical Computers process data under the control of sets of Computers instructions called computer programs instructions Personal computers: economical enough for individual Distributed computing: computing distributed over computing networks networks Client/server computing: sharing of information across sharing computer networks between file servers and clients (personal computers) What is a Computer? (cont.) (cont.) Computer Hardware Various devices comprising a computer: Keyboard, screen, mouse, disks, memory, CDKeyboard, ROM, and processing units Hardware Trends: every year or two the following Hardware High-level approximately double (Moore’s Law): approximately Language Amount of memory in which to execute programs Amount of secondary storage (such as disk storage) Used to hold programs and data over the longer term Language User Application Software Assembly Processor speeds The speeds at which computers execute their programs Firmware Machine Code OS Hardware What is a Computer? (cont.) (cont.) Computer Software Computer Programs that run on a computer, including Computer Operation System (OS) Application Software Computer Language High-level Language Language User Application Software Assembly OS Firmware Machine Code Hardware Moore's Law Moore's Defined by Dr. Gordon Moore during the Defined sixties. sixties. Predicts an exponential increase in Predicts component density over time, with a doubling time of 18 months. doubling Applicable to microprocessors, DRAMs , Applicable DSPs and other microelectronics. DSPs Monotonic increase in density observed Monotonic since the 1960s. since Moore’s Law - Density Moore’s Moore's Law and Performance Moore's The performance of computers is The determined by architecture and clock speed. speed. Clock speed doubles over a 3 year period Clock due to the scaling laws on chip. due Processors using identical or similar Processors architectures gain performance directly as a function of Moore's Law. function Improvements in internal architecture can Improvements yield better gains than predicted by Moore's Law. Moore's Moore’s Law - Clock Speed Moore’s What is a Computer? (cont.) (cont.) Internet The Internet enables Quick and easy communication via e-mail International networking of computers Packet switching The transfer of digital data via small packets Allows multiple users to send and receive data simultaneously No centralized control If one part of the Internet fails, other parts can still operate Bandwidth Bandwidth Information carrying capacity of communications lines Information Ex: Internet T2 at IUPUI World Wide Web Locate and view multimedia-based documents on almost any subject Locate Makes information instantly and conveniently accessible worldwide Possible for individuals and small businesses to get worldwide exposure Changing the way business is done Changing Computer Organization Computer A Typical Von-Neumann Architecture CPU Control Circuit (ex: PC: Program Counter) ALU Memory I/O Example: 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. Input unit Output unit Memory unit Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) Central processing unit (CPU) Secondary storage unit Computer Organization (cont.) (cont.) Six logical units in every computer: 1. Input unit Obtains information from input devices (keyboard, mouse) 2. Output unit Outputs information (to screen, to printer, to control other devices) devices) 3. Memory unit Rapid access, low capacity, stores input information Rapid ROM (Read Only Memory): CMOS, EPROM … RAM (Random Access Memory): SRAM, DRAM, SIMM, DIMM RAM … Computer Organization (cont.) (cont.) Six logical units in every computer (cont): 1. Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) – part of CPU Performs arithmetic calculations (addition, subtraction...) and Performs logic decisions logic 2. 3. Control unit (CU) - part of CPU Supervises and coordinates the other sections of the computer Secondary storage unit Cheap, long-term, high-capacity storage Cheap, Stores inactive programs Computer Organization (cont.) (cont.) Central Processing Unit (CPU), Central “brain” of a computer, consisting of Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU): performs arithmetic calculations (addition, subtraction...) and logic decisions (>, <, =, ...) (addition, Control Unit (CU): decodes each machine instruction and sends Control signal to other components for carrying out the instruction. signal An integrated circuit (IC) that is a full central processing unit An is called a microprocessor (µ p); a CPU’s current instruction is ); and data values are stored temporally inside the CPU in special high-speed memory location called registers. special CPU speed: ? MHz (M: Mega = 106, Hz=1/sec); Computer Organization (cont.) (cont.) Memory A llarge collection of circuits, each capable of arge storing bit storing Cells (words): manageable units; typical size is 8 Cells bits (1 byte), some machines are 16 bits (2 bytes) and some are 32 bits or 64 bits bytes) 10 Byte (8 bits), KB (kilobyte, 103 ≈ 210 bytes), MB 20 30 (Megabyte, 106 ≈ 220 bytes), GB (Gigabyte, 109 ≈ 230 (Megabyte, bytes), bytes). Note: k ≠ K because 1000 ≠ 1024. because Computer Organization (cont.) (cont.) Computer memory is comparable to a collection of Computer numbered mailboxes. To identify individual cells in a machine’s main memory, each cell is assigned a unique name, called its address name, ASCII Data Address H 01001000 0000 0101 e 0000 0110 l 0000 0111 l 0000 1000 o 0001 0001 , 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111 00101110 ... ... Address Bus Data Bus 0001 0010 The organization of byte-size memory cell Most Significant Bit (MSB) High-order end Least Significant Bit (LSB) Low-order end 00000101 Acknowledgements Acknowledgements Moore’s Law: Kopp, Carlo. Monash University. Moore’s Melbourne, Australia. 2000. Melbourne, ...
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  • Spring '10
  • kittu
  • Central processing unit, Secondary storage unit, Dr. Gordon Moore, Application Software Assembly

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