06 - Chapter 6 Switch Design Principles for Broadband...

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1 Chapter 6 Switch Design Principles for Broadband Services
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2 A B C E D Network High access bandwidth (a) A B C E D Multicast Packet Switch (b) Fig. 6.1. (a) Multicasting by separate point-to-point connections from source to destinations. (b) Multicasting using multicast switches in network.
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3 Multicast Group A multicast group is a set of outputs A multicast packet is destined for the outputs in a multicast group. The header of a multicast packet contains a multicast group ID. Bus-based Knockout switch can implement multicast easily, but bus-based knockout switch has high complexity
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4 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1111 1110 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0111 0110 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1111 1110 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0111 0110 1010 1001 1111 1010 1001 1111 1010 1001 1111 1010 1001 1111 1001 1010 1111 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1001 1010 1111 Fig. 6.2. An input-output tree generated by generalized self-routing algorithm.
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5 Disadvantages of Switches that Copy and Route at the Same Time Banyan switch (previous slide) Highly blocking General switches of this type 2 2 1 possible output subsets At least log (2 1) bits in the header to specify the output subset (not desirable for large ) N N N N - -
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6 Copy Network Point- to-point Switch Fig. 6.3. A multicast packet switch that consists of a copy network and a point-to-point switch. Copy network just makes copies for each multicast packet The multicast group ID and the copy index of a packet here is mapped to an output Regular point-to-point switching here
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7 0110 0101 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1111 1110 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0111 0110 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1111 1110 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0111 0110 1001 1000 1010 0101 1010 1 0 0110 0101 0111 1001 1000 1010 0101 0111 1000 1010 1 0 0110 0101 0111 1001 1000 1010 0101 0111 1000 1010 1 0 1 0 0110 0101 0111 0101 0101 0110 0111 1010 1000 1000 1001 1010 1010 1001 1 0 1 0 0 1 1010 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 Fig. 6.4. The Boolean interval splitting algorithm generates the equivalent input-output tree of a packet with interval addresses.
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8 Boolean Interval Splitting Algorithm Output interval : (MIN, MAX ) Copy number : CN = MAX- MIN + 1 MIN(k-1) = m 1 … m n MAX(k-1) = M 1 … M n At stage k, (i) if m k = M k = 0, send packet out on link 0; (ii) if m k = M k = 1 , send packet out on link 1; (iii) if m k = 0 , M k = 1 , duplicate packet & modify header (a) for packet on link 0, MIN(k) = MIN(k-1) = m 1 … m n MAX(k) = M 1 … M k-1 011…1 (b) for packet on link 1, MIN(k) = M 1 … M k-1 100…0 MAX(k) = MAX(k-1)=M 1 … M n 000 001 010 100 101 101 CN=1 CN=3 CN=2 000 001 111 010
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9 Nonblocking Condition A copy network is nonblocking if it can produce the packet copies requested if the total number of copies does not exceed N . A broadcast banyan network is nonblocking if active inputs x 1 … x m and their sets of outputs Y 1 .. Y m satisfy 1. Y 1 < … < Y m or Y 1 > … > Y m where Y i < Y j means all addresses in Y i < all addresses in Y j 2. Active inputs are concentrated.
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10 Nonblocking Copy Network BCN : Broadcast Channel Number (multicast group ID) CN : Copy Number (number of copies desired) IR : Index Reference (MIN of a multicast packet) CI : Copy Index TN : Trunk Number (Packet’s output address at the overall multicast switch) IR + CI = the targeted copy network’s output address of a packet at copy network Copy Network Point-to-Point Switch BCN CN TN Packet header BCN CI BCN CI TN
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11 Three active packets, A, B, and C, and
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