Ch05_Handout1 - Addition Reactions of Alkenes C h a p te r...

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1 Addition Addition Reactions Reactions of Alkenes of Alkenes Chapter 4 (pp. 147 Chapter 4 (pp. 147– 172) Chapter Chapter 5 Chapter 7 (pp. 298 Chapter 7 (pp. 298– 314) General Reactivity of C=C General Reactivity of C=C Electrons in π bond are loosely held. Electrophiles are attracted to the π electrons. Carbocation intermediate may form. Nucleophile then adds to the carbocation. Net result is addition to the double bond. C C R R Nu = + E ! + X ! C C R R X E R R R R
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2 Paradox Paradox Understand the reaction outcome by developing a reaction mechanism 1-bromo-2-methylpropane 2-bromo-2-methylpropane H Br H Br ROOR H Br Br H Reaction Mechanism Reaction Mechanism Mechanism : step-by-step pathway of a reaction from Reactants to Products A reaction mechanism describes how a reaction occurs which bonds are broken and which new ones are formed the order and relative rates of the various bond- breaking and bond-forming steps if in solution, the role of the solvent if there is a catalyst, the role of a catalyst the position of all atoms and energy of the entire system during the reaction
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3 Why Mechanisms? Why Mechanisms? they are the framework within which to organize descriptive chemistry: A precise sequence of steps. Classification of each step as fast , slow , reversible , irreversible . Assignment of the preferred equilibrium position. Elucidation of the transition state structures and their effect on rates Defining the number and characteristics of intermediates ( stable , transient , cyclic , acyclic , ionic , rearranging, etc.).
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