NOTES - Cholera OriginandSpread Causes 15:24:00...

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Cholera 10/11/2010 15:24:00 Origin and Spread Indian subcontinent as a contaminant in Ganges River Spread by trade routes to Russia and Europe, then to North America No longer a threat in Europe and North America due to water purification Threat in developing countries Causes Miasma Theory o Max von Petterkofer-concluded cases came from marshlands o Florence Nightingale- raised nursing standards Poison Theory o John Snow Father of modern epidemiology o Not airborne; affected gut first o Proposed toxin in patient feces transmitted by water Contagion/Germ Theory o Robert Koch o 1883-found bacteria vibrio cholerae o Established Koch’s Postulate Organism must be found in diseased but not healthy
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Organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture Reisolated from infected animals Clinical Procedure 50% fatality rate Watery, “rice-water” diarrhea Sunken in eyes, cramps, leathery skin, Hypovolemic shock which leads to a quick death Pandemics 1 st  pandemic- Russia and China 1820 o Cholera Riots against Russian government al restrictions 2 nd - Paris, London 1849 and the US 4 th - Europe and AFtrica 1863-1875 6 th - last epidemic in the US when Moltke brought infected people to NYC. Slum Housing/ Measures taken Industrial Revolution caused boom in factory towns Cheap housing established to accomadate workers o Few sewage facilities Link to the spread of cholera led to the Public Health Act of 1875 for clean  sewage and water
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Forced better living conditions for people to keep the disease down 1983 Immigration Act After tuphus outbreak in US, Act was established Only healthy passengers were allowed into US-inspection ports Epidemiology
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