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Unformatted text preview: Elements of Culture, Gender, & Diversity in Counseling Psychology Counseling
PSYCH 482 Intro to Culture- and GenderIntro Based Approaches Race, gender, class, and culture are powerful influences on how Race, we approach life from birth to death. we Many counselors focus on these factors in counseling to help Many clients understand themselves within the context of their dilemmas. dilemmas. Feminist and multicultural perspectives will most likely pervade Feminist . Need to understand how to deal with Need the context we are in the
and influence all theoretical approaches in the future and Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism: Intra-psychic experience; not limited to minority groups, etc (We are all people of culture and ALL identify with a cultural identity) -job of therapist is to see how you fit in this fitting of cultures Why do group differences matter? differences Commonalities such as sustenance, safety, and belonging exist among Commonalities most people. most Three groups: Priorities, personality traits, and perceptions are all influenced by context. influenced There are universalities between all people; although there are There significant group differences( and individual differences) significant Cultures may vary or have different intercultual and intracutural Cultures conventions about people. For example, Western cultures (Us etc) value individual independence while Western Eastern cultures embrace belongingness and conventionality. Eastern Men in western cultures seek independence more actively than Men women, whereas women seek belongingness. (Group differences) women, Al Do differences imply different psychological presentations? psychological Some illnesses are UNIVERSAL (exist in same base=rate with Some same presentation same throughout the world) same Schizophrenia Individual and group distinctions regarding basic conditions of Individual existence (such as mortality) influence our perspective. existence Ex: Anorexia nervosa (Only in western area, etc) Positive/Negative traits different worldwide (Extroversion is valued Positive/Negative in western world) in Although some mental health disorders are diagnosed Although
worldwide, one’s worldview or perspective may influence the following: worldwide, How the disorder is acted out How the disorder develops over time How the disorder is treated Evaluations of improvement of the disorder Do differences imply different psychological presentations? psychological Research indicates that behavior may be influenced by the Research following: following: Culture value systems Conflict between immigrant culture and newly Americanized Conflict persons (ongoing conflict with parents; kids wanting to identify with home country but parents want they to be more american) american) Access to services such as mental health care Perceived self-image of self-esteem related to disabilities Socioeconomic status Do differences imply different psychological presentations? psychological Sex or gender is the most dominant cultural factor and has psychological implications for the way we perceive ourselves or are perceived by others (you can only identify as one or the other: status exists for everyone) other: Differences B/T Sex (women having a baby) and GENDER Differences (primary caregiver, man or woman; man can assume feminine gender role) gender Women are not rewarded for assertive or leadership behavior Women are able to recall memories at an earlier age and to Women remember memories more vividly than men remember Boys and men with depression are more like out or externalize their Boys feelings, whereas girls or women are likely to withdraw or internalize internalize Girls rate themselves less talented than boys in science (boys less Girls in english, etc) in Boys use overt behavior to deal with conflict, whereas girls use Boys relational aggression in conflict relational Definitions of cultural and gender terminology gender No equal representation; natural origin Skin color is either valuable or less than: socially constructed Multiculturalism in Counseling Multiculturalism Cultural background is an essential part Cultural of identity and behavior of Our perception of what is normal or Our acceptable is affected by our own and our clients’ cultural and gender background. background. Common features that define healthy Common functioning regardless of one’s cultural are listed on the next slide are Common Factors of Healthy Functioning Functioning
Optimalism; to be better All people make judgment a/b themselves :how good they are, etc Internal energy that drives us BREAKDOWNS: problem
Some amount of change or choice Inconsistencies in Clinical Judgment Clinical Gender and culture may influence clinical judgment in terms of Gender diagnosis and treatment diagnosis Gross differences in people from various backgrounds were treated: Gross therapy was seen as a hammer and every problem was a nail--> interpretation wasn’t there, many biases, no individualism interpretation Gender and cultural factors may result in bias in counseling. Overpathologizing is when we perceive greater disturbance in one group than in another group Minimizing occurs when we judge a problem to be negligible for some but not for others (do not want to appear to be biased; refuse to acknowledge it) to Overdiagnosis is the tendency to apply a diagnosis more frequently to one group than another frequently Underdiagnosis result when a judgment of disorder is less likely to be made or not made because the client belongs to a particular group. group. The variable most seen: the one the MOST DIFFERENT from The themselves themselves Inconsistencies in Clinical Judgment Clinical Research supports that groups may Research experience cultural bias in counseling based on disability, SES, apparent race, ethnicity, or gender. race, No necessarily what your No ethnicity/gender is, but what is is ASSUMED to be ASSUMED Inconsistencies in Clinical Judgment Clinical While bias is typically thought to occur when two groups While are assessed differently, another type of bias occurs when cultural or gender differences are not acknowledged or considered. considered. A more covert type of bias may result in ineffective more treatment if groups are treated the same despite the presence of differences. presence Counselors are neglectful if they do not consider Counselors cultural differences as part of the psychological assessment. assessment. Psychological Effects of Culture and Gender Culture Role Expectation and Stereotyping Expectations put upon people: they may or may not meet them Expectations though even if expected though Stereotypes: the images or impressions that we have about the people based on family teaching, personal experiences, and institutional customs institutional Gender is heavily influenced by stereotypes of what people Gender think and feel about the roles of men and women in their culture and/or in society culture Potential for psychological disturbance 6 ft guys doesn’t want to play sports; wants to be a poet Psychological Effects of Culture and Gender Culture Stereotypes may result in prejudgments about individuals or Stereotypes groups that may be far from correct. Stereotypes may be based on membership in several different Stereotypes groups and the degree to which we are connected to those groups. groups. Acculturation: the degree to which a person adopts a the culture other than his original culture as his/her own. (Ex: in Canada; needed to be proficient in French to practice) Canada; Salience: the priority or importance that a person gives to the one cultural feature over another. (ex: language imposed you by higher order issues, US doesn’t have an official language) language) Psychological Effects of Culture and Gender Culture Mirror-image stereotypes: include
opposite notions of two groups simultaneously and may limit perceptions of nuanced reality. (PROBLEM with stereotypes: iif there is something “good”, stereotypes f then the opposite is “bad”: multiple ways of doing things CAN be equal in value) doing Functions of Stereotyping Functions National, ethnic, and cultural National, stereotypes persist, not only between cultures, but also within cultures, though self-descriptions don’t support these stereotypes. these Stereotypes may be socially Stereotypes constructed and may serve as a rationale for behavior. rationale Role Strain and Conflict Role Role strain: may occur when a person hangs onto too many roles and feels the psychological stress of demands from multiple roles. demands Role conflict occurs when the demands of roles are not in harmony or result in negative consequences. (to do one thing will violate a another: ex: a person is now trying to adopt roles of their partner.. The way they were raised is different than their partner.) they (Views about how to raise kids, religion, etc comes (Views into conflict between two sets of cultural values.) into Interacting Sources of Oppression Oppression Prejudice, Trauma, and Violence Groups that are culturally underrepresented geographically Groups may experience minority status minority Prejudice often results towards those with minority status and may result in trauma and violence based on misperceptions and stereotypes. misperceptions Racial Identity: is one’s attitude toward one’s own race and other races in terms of identification or acceptance. other Violence is often the result of individuals’ or groups’ judgment of others as lesser beings and uses this judgment as validation for violence towards them. as Interacting Sources of Oppression Oppression Socio-Economic Status (SES) Minority status is related to low SES Gender and culture are also related to SES White women earn between two-thirds to one-half of the White salary of white men. salary Minority men and women ear less than white men. Counseling in Western cultures emphasizes the significance Counseling of financial independence and security in order to help clients escape the burdens of poverty. clients Rich get richer and poor get poorer The Process of Therapy The Therapist Role and Training Diversity training is typically part of any academic program in counseling or psychology in There is little supporting evidence that participating in There multicultural training reduces prejudice multicultural There is some evidence that a blacklash effect may occur There blacklash (in which a person could become even more prejudiced against certain groups as a result of training) against Plating seed metaphor Therapist Role and Training, cont. Therapist Research has found that having counselors and clients from the Research same ethnic group has no effect on client improvement or same no length of counseling experience length Research indicates that a good cognitive match between Research good counselor and client is a better predictor of positive process and better outcome than ethnic match outcome Ex: a therapist would have to have anxiety to treat a Ex: person with anxiety!! (Understand the research, etc but don’t have to personally have it) but Therapist Role and Training, cont. cont. The clinician should openly discuss cultural The differences with the client in order to determine differences whether the client sees the differences as problematic or having a negative impact on therapy. problematic (Ex: what is it like for you to work with a female (Ex: therapist, etc) therapist, Using reason and gaining insight into the client’s Using diverse experiences will help the counselor identify and reduce bias. and Research supports that firm intentions and conscious Research planning to eliminate bias can work to reduce bias in counseling. counseling. An Ethnographic Perspective An Ethnography is the description of culture, and ethnographic studies are based on comprehension of the viewpoint of people inside a specific culture. (understanding from observing the behavior in context) observing Gaining an Ethnographic Perspective in Therapy Gaining
Areas/Themes of Exploration Understanding a client’s worldview Questions for Clients that Elicit Information How do you define the world? What are your circumstances? What goals do you have for your life? What do you think about the counseling process? What are your impressions of our interaction and communication? Integrating counseling style with client concerns or perspectives Establishing trust and mutual respect What do your hope to achieve in counseling? How do you prioritize your concerns? Negotiation Collaboration How can we develop a treatment plan that is acceptable to both of us? How can a working partnership be established so that both points of view contribute to a positive counseling outcome? Feminist Approaches Feminist Counselors must include gender awareness Counselors in their counseling practices. in (A.K.A.) Gender-aware therapy exists on a continuum (from a nonsexist view that avoids differential descriptions of men and women to a Feminist view which rejects traditional culture and power structures of gender). culture Feminist Approaches Feminist Feminist therapy places gender at the core of case Feminist conceptualization. conceptualization. Feminist therapy is collection of philosophies rather than one Feminist unified theory. unified Feminist therapy is guided by the principles of nonhierarchical Feminist structures and the validity of all experiences, regardless of gender. gender. Feminist Approaches Feminist Common threads that connect feminist approaches Common include the following: include Collaboration between counselor and client Equal sharing of resources and power Focus on empowerment Feminist approaches are built on a relational model built that focuses on share situations in identity development rather than the autonomy model, which applauds independence from others as the evolution of identity. evolution Feminist Approaches Feminist Customary Techniques of Therapy Shared Power Self-disclosure Consciousness-Raising Groups Social Action Use of Native Healers Crisis Centers Uses for Gendered and Cultural Approaches Cultural Preadolescent Gender Intensification Affirmative Psychotherapy for GLBT Emotional Self-Awareness for Men (Ex: Emotional if a guy isn’t a UT fan, then they don’t fit etc) etc) Uses for Gendered and Cultural Approaches Cultural Family therapy Only 6% of of the US population represent the supposed “traditional Only nuclear family” with an employed father and homemaker mother. nuclear Feminist therapists examine how gender and cultural systems Feminist operate in the everyday lives of families. operate Gender-oriented counseling will focus on: The influence of forces outside the family Gender-role acceptance and rejection both inside and outside Gender-role the family the Equalizing power relationships between the sexes Developing the capacity of all members to listen to each other. Division of power should be equal; valuing the partner and Division contribution of family in an equal way: COMMUNICATION contribution Critiques of Gendered and Cultural Approaches Cultural Redundancy with other approaches Encouragement of Victimology (conflict: excusing behavior Encouragement Victimology because we are creating victims OR problems exist and we are acknowledging the problem) acknowledging Moral Conflicts (sexual orientation; certain religious beliefs, etc) Ethical clashes: not okay to be homophobic (can say it is not Ethical your “area of expertise” in the coming out process, can refer to a colleague, BUT cannot turn them away just b/c they are gay) colleague, ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2010 for the course PSYCH 482 taught by Professor Levy during the Spring '10 term at University of Tennessee.
- Spring '10
- Counseling Psychology