Prep101 - Bio 200 Equation Sheet(Lasko Fagotto Biology 200...

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Bio 200 Equation Sheet We’ve helped over 50,000 students get better grades since 1999! (Lasko / Fagotto) 9 Biology 200 is a challenging course containing lots of material and requires a full understanding of the course content 9 Start studying early to be well prepared for the exam 9 It is impossible to memorize all the information without understanding it 9 Do not only rely on lecture notes – create a summarized version of notes to study with by using lecture notes, class notes and the text book 9 The exam style is multiple choice - many questions will not be straight forward but will require the application of different parts of the course 9 It is important to do as many practice questions as possible to be comfortable with approaching exam questions MACROMOLECULES: PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPIDS Key Terms Polypeptide α helix β -pleated sheets Helix-loop- helix Ca 2 Zinc Finger Coiled coil motif Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure Purines Pyrimidines Nucleotide Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ¾ Lipid membranes composed of phospholipids that are amphipathic. Have hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head ¾ Carbohydrates : Have the general formula (CH 2 O) n o Monosaccharides are linked together via a glycosidic bonds forming polysaccharides o Sugars can also branch forming huge polymers ¾ Proteins : Consists of one or more polypeptide that have a defined 3-D structure and have diverse biological functions o Peptides have covalent bonds between the amino group from one amino acid with the carboxyl group of adjoining amino acid o There are 20 different amino acids differing by their R group ¾ Nucleic Acids : macromolecules composed of a long chain of monomers known as nucleotides. o Nucleotides consist of : a Pentose Sugar, 5-C sugar either deoxyribose or ribose, a nitrogenous base either a purine or pyrimidine and a phosphate group o Nucleotides are joined through 5’-3’ phosphodiester linkage o DNAs stores all genetic information in genes o 2 categories of RNA : Structural (tRNA, mRNA, rRNA) and catalytic TRANSCRIPTION Key Terms Primary transcript Capping Poly (A)tail Alternative splicing Operon repressors Activators mutations Enhancers Protein-coding region Pre-Initiation Complex Transcription factors TATA-BOX Regulatory Sequences Promoter- proximal elements Deletion analysis Repression domain DNA-binding Domain Homeodomain proteins Zinc-Finger proteins Leucine Zippers Basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLH) enhancesome ¾ Transcription a process by which the polymerization of ribonucleotides is guided by complementary base pairing with DNA producing an RNA transcript of a gene ¾ Occurs in 3 steps : o Initiation : RNA Polymerase binds consist of multiple subunits, DNA denatures, 2 ribonucleotides are aligned, release of the σ subunit ends initiation o Elongation : Transcription bubble is formed o Termination: RNA sequences that signal the end of elongation coded by DNA. Terminator sequence stops RNA Polymerase ¾ Promoter is essential for transcription.
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