Bio 200 Equation SheetWe’ve helped over 50,000 students get better grades since 1999!(Lasko / Fagotto)9Biology 200 is a challenging course containing lotsof material and requires a full understanding of the course content9Start studying earlyto be well prepared for the exam9It is impossible to memorize all the information without understandingit9Do notonly rely on lecture notes – create a summarizedversion of notes to study with by using lecture notes, class notes and the text book 9The exam style is multiple choice - many questions will not be straight forward but will require the applicationof different parts of the course9It is important to do as many practice questionsas possible to be comfortable with approaching exam questionsMACROMOLECULES: PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, CARBOHYDRATES AND LIPIDS Key Terms Polypeptide αhelix β-pleated sheets Helix-loop-helix Ca2Zinc Finger Coiled coil motif Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure Purines Pyrimidines Nucleotide Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ¾Lipid membranescomposed of phospholipids that are amphipathic. Have hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head ¾Carbohydrates: Have the general formula (CH2O)noMonosaccharides are linked together via a glycosidic bonds forming polysaccharides oSugars can also branch forming huge polymers ¾Proteins : Consists of one or more polypeptide that have a defined 3-D structure and have diverse biological functions oPeptides have covalent bonds between the amino group from one amino acid with the carboxyl group of adjoining amino acid oThere are 20 different amino acids differing by their R group ¾Nucleic Acids: macromolecules composed of a long chain of monomers known as nucleotides. oNucleotides consist of : a Pentose Sugar, 5-C sugar either deoxyribose or ribose, a nitrogenous base either a purine or pyrimidine and a phosphate group oNucleotides are joined through 5’-3’ phosphodiester linkage oDNAs stores all genetic information in genes o2 categories of RNA : Structural (tRNA, mRNA, rRNA) and catalytic TRANSCRIPTION Key Terms Primary transcript Capping Poly (A)tail Alternative splicing Operon repressors Activators mutations Enhancers Protein-coding region Pre-Initiation Complex Transcription factors TATA-BOX Regulatory Sequences Promoter-proximal elements Deletion analysis Repression domain DNA-binding Domain Homeodomain proteins Zinc-Finger proteins Leucine Zippers Basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLH) enhancesome ¾Transcriptiona process by which the polymerization of ribonucleotides is guided by complementary base pairing with DNA producing an RNA transcript of a gene ¾Occurs in 3 steps : oInitiation : RNA Polymerase binds consist of multiple subunits, DNA denatures, 2 ribonucleotides are aligned, release of the σsubunit ends initiation oElongation : Transcription bubble is formed oTermination: RNA sequences that signal the end of elongation coded by DNA. Terminator sequence stops RNA Polymerase ¾Promoter is essential for transcription.