lec 2 - Lecture 2: Chemical Foundations II Building...

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Lecture 2: Chemical Foundations II
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Building macromolecules “monomers” “polymers”
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Building macromolecules
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Large structures based on noncovalent bonds: cytoskeleton actin filament microtubule Non-covalent bonds = easy to form and undo -> Polymers very dynamic
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Large structures based on non-covalent bonds: lipid membranes water H-bonds, ionic interactions Van der Waals + hydrophobic interactions water hydrophobic environment Weak interactions, lipids can move very rapidly within one leaflet = ‘2D liquid’ ‘leaflets’
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How can one make a buffer that will not enter the cell? Phosphate pH 7: HPO 4 2- <-> H 2 PO 4 - <-> H 3 PO 4 Tris pH 7: <-> NH 3 +
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HEPES (buffer, pKa ~ 7.5) Example of HEPES, a buffer commonly used in Cell/Molecular Biology
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Construction of reagents that become trapped and accumulate in the cytoplasm cell Plasma membrane Esterase (enzyme that hydrolyzes ester bonds) CO O C HH C H Fluorescent molecule modified by coupling via a carboxyl group to an acetyl group. Note that the resulting molecule is non-polar.
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lec 2 - Lecture 2: Chemical Foundations II Building...

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