lec 4 - Structure of nucleic acids Electron micrograph of...

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Structure of nucleic acids
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Electron micrograph of DNA (green rrow) being arrow) being transcribed into RNA (red arrow)
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Nucleic Acids • DNA – Contains all the information required to build the ells and tissues of an organism cells and tissues of an organism. – Information is stored in units called genes. ranscription is the process by which the Transcription is the process by which the information stored in DNA is copied into RNA for eventual use. • Translation is the process by which that information is used to create a protein of pecific amino acid sequence specific amino acid sequence.
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Molecular genetic processes and where they occur in the cell 1. Transcription NA processing 2. RNA processing 3. Translation 4. Replication
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DNA and RNA are linear polymers of monomers called nucleotides. There re five different nucleotides: are five different nucleotides: adenine, guanine (both called purines), and three pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine (in DNA only), and uracil (in RNA only). Most RNAs have <100 to 0 000 nucleotides 10,000 nucleotides. Cellular DNA molecules can be 100,000,000 nucleotides long.
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Phosphodiester bonds link the 3’ hydroxyl group of one base to the 5’ phosphate group of the adjacent ase The nucleotide base. The nucleotide at one end of the polymer has a free ’ phosphate group 5’ phosphate group, and the nucleotide at the other end of the polymer has a free 3’ hydroxyl group, thus the olymer is directional. polymer is directional.
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The DNA double helix
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lec 4 - Structure of nucleic acids Electron micrograph of...

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