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lec 20 - The genome and general gene structure Genes Gene...

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The genome and general gene structure
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Gene: region of DNA controlling a distinct hereditary character includes entire DNA sequence necessary for synthesis of functional gene product = protein or RNA (tRNA, rRNA, miRNA) coding region 3’ UTR UTR = untranslated region 5’ UTR poly A tail promoter regulatory elements Genes
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Explanation of representation of receptor tyrosine kinase structure: example of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase domain cystein-rich domain Schematic representation of protein sequence (amino acids) and its position relative to the plasma membrane bilayer Black line: Sequences unique to EGF receptor Sequences constituting ‘motifs’ or ‘domains’ found in other proteins mRNA sequence 3’UTR ATG (Start) Cap 5’UTR transmembrane region Stop AAAAA polyA tail N-terminus (NH3+) C-terminus (COO-) Coding sequence (all exons) Unique sequences between ‘boxes’: probably originally sides of the ‘boxes’, but less functional constraints (function mostly as ‘linkers’ between important protein domains) -> rapid divergent evolution
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Eukaryotic genes produce monocistronic RNA Bacteria: operons -> polycistronic RNA: one RNA can produce several polypeptides promoter A B C promoter A B C promoter promoter Eukaryotes: monocistronic RNA: each mRNA produces a single polypeptide ATG ATG ATG ATG ATG ATG
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Eukaryotic genes are complex introns exons regulatory sequences promoter
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