Aristotle - On Generation And Corruption - 350 BC ON...

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Sheet1 Page 1 350 BC ON GENERATION AND CORRUPTION by Aristotle translated by H. H. Joachim Book I 1 OUR next task is to study coming-to-be and passing-away. We are to distinguish the causes, and to state the definitions, of these processes considered in general-as changes predicable uniformly of all the things that come-to-be and pass-away by nature. Further, we are to study growth and 'alteration'. We must inquire what each of them is and whether 'alteration' is to be identified with coming-to-be, or whether to these different names there correspond two separate processes with distinct natures. On this question, indeed, the early philosophers are divided. Some of them assert that the so-called 'unqualified coming-to-be' is alteration', while others maintain that 'alteration' and coming-to-be are distinct. For those who say that the universe is one something (i.e. those who generate all things out of one thing) are bound to assert that coming-to-be is 'alteration', and that whatever comes-to-be' in the proper sense of the term is 'being altered': but those who make the matter of things more than one must distinguish coming-to-be from 'alteration'. To this latter class belong Empedocles, Anaxagoras, and Leucippus. And yet Anaxagoras himself failed to understand his own utterance. He says, at all events, that coming-to-be and passing-away are the same as 'being altered':' yet, in common with other thinkers, he affirms that the elements are many. Thus Empedocles holds that the corporeal elements are four, while all the elements-including those which initiate movement-are six in number that the elements are infinite. (Anaxagoras posits as elements the 'homoeomeries', viz. bone, flesh, marrow, and everything else which is such that part and whole are the same in name and nature there are indivisible bodies, infinite both in number and in the varieties of their shapes, of which everything else is composed-the compounds differing one from another according to the shapes, positions', and 'groupings' of their constituents.) For the views of the school of Anaxagoras seem diametrically opposed to those of the followers of Empedocles. Empedocles says that Fire, Water, Air, and Earth are four elements, and are thus 'simple' rather than flesh, bone, and bodies which, like these, are homoeomeries'. But the followers of Anaxagoras regard the
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Sheet1 Page 2 homoeomeries' as 'simple' and elements, whilst they affirm that Earth, Fire, Water, and Air are composite (according to them) a 'common seminary' of all the 'homoeomeries'. Those, then, who construct all things out of a single element, must maintain that coming-tobe and passing-away are 'alteration'. For they must affirm that the underlying something always remains identical and one altering' Those, on the other hand, who make the ultimate kinds of things more than one, must maintain that 'alteration' is distinct from coming-to-be: for coming-to-be and passingaway result from the consilience and the dissolution of the many kinds. That is why Empedocles too uses language to this effect, when he says 'There is no
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