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chapter21-part1 - Electric charge Electric charge is a...

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1 Electric charge Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter, same as mass. Mass is associated to gravitational forces, charge is associated to “electromagnetic” forces. Charge exists in two “flavors”: + - “positive” “negative” How is the atom arranged? Why is it easiest to move electrons? •Electrons arrange around the nucleus in “shells”. •Inner electrons are tightly bound to the nucleus. •Electrons in outer shells are less bound to the nucleus and easy to remove. •New electrons added to the atoms, will sit in the outer shell as well.
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2 Lithium as a cation, an anion, and a neutral atom Let’s study the subatomic arrangement of lithium with all charges balanced and the way only electrons move to make the atom an ion (+ or -). Charge is “quantized” Charge can only exist in “packets” formed by an integer number of “elementary or fundamental charges”, the charge of the electron (or proton) C 10 60217653 . 1 19 - × = e This number is so small, that the charge can be considered to vary continuously in practice The unit of charge is the “Coulomb” Charge is conserved
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